Reflection in Learning




Reflection, online learning, structure of knowledge


This study explored the impact of reflection on learning in an online learning environment. Twenty-five students from four online courses participated in this research project. Reflection was purposefully designed and embedded in various assignments. Data were mainly collected from interviews and students’ different types of reflections. The inductive content analysis method was employed to analyze data. Five themes were generalized in terms of how reflection impacts learning: Increasing the depth of knowledge, identifying the areas which are missing or deficient, personalizing and contextualizing knowledge, providing comparative references in learning, and helping learners build structural connections in knowledge and social connections among learners. This study provides foundational ideas for designing reflective activities to promote students’ learning in an online learning environment.

Author Biography

Bo Chang, Ball State University

Full name: Bo Chang

Author titles: Assistant Professor

Institutional Affiliations:

Department of Educational Studies,

Ball State University

Postal addresses:

Department of Educational Studies

Teachers College (TC), Room TC814

Ball State University

2000 University Avenue
Muncie, IN 47306-0610 Phone numbers: 706-247-6269

Email addresses:

Corresponding author: Bo Chang



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Empirical Studies