ASSESSMENT AND COLLABORATION IN ONLINE LEARNING
Keywords:Online Collaboration, Assessment, Course Discussion, Small Group Work, Collaborative Exams
Assessment can be seen as the engine that drives student course activity, online or off. It is particularly important in encouraging and shaping collaborative activity online. This paper discusses three sorts of online collaborative activity—collaborative discussion, small group collaboration, and collaborative exams. In each of these areas, it provides both theoretical grounding and practical advice for assessing, and so encouraging, collaboration in online courses.
Erwin, T. D. Assessing Student Learning and Development, 14–19. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991.
Angelo, T. A. Definition of assessment. AAHE Bulletin, November 7, 1995.
Entwhistle, N. Promoting deep learning through teaching and assessment. Assessment to Promote Deep Learning: Insights from AAHF’s 2000 and 1999 Assessment Conferences, 9–20. Washington DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.
Bloom, B. A Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: D. McKay Co, 1956.
Deming, W. E. Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.
Olson, L. Quality-management movement spurs interest in new awards for education. Education Week 11(8): 1992.
Wright, B. D. More art than science: the postsecondary assessment movement today. In J. Bourne and J.C. Moore (eds.), Elements of Quality Online Education: Into the Mainstream, Vol. 5 in the Sloan-C Series, 185–197. Needham, MA: Sloan-C, 2004.
Huba, M. E. and J. E. Freed. Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses: Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1999.
Scardamalia, M. and C. Bereiter. Computer support for knowledge building communities. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 3(3): 265–283, 1994.
Linn, M. and S. Hsi. Computers, Teachers, Peers, Science Learning Partners. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1998.
Pea, R. Seeing what we build together: distributed multimedia learning environments for transformative communications. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 3(3): 285–299, 1994.
Isenhour, P. L., J. M. Carroll, D. C. Neale, M. B. Rosson, and D. R. Dunlap. The virtual school: An integrated collaborative environment for the classroom. Educational Technology & Society 3(3): 74–86, 2000.
Ben-Haym, A. MOO virtual textual environment and its implications for collaborative learning. Unpublished MA Thesis, Tel-Aviv University School of Education, 1999.
Naidu, S. A. Ip, and R. Linser. Dynamic goal-based role-play simulation on the Web: A case study. Educational Technology & Society 3(3): 190–202, 2000.
Lamaster, K. and D. Tannehill. Preservice teachers as mentors using telecommunications. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications 5(1): 25–46, 1999.
Benbunan-Fich, R. & Hiltz, S. R. Impact of asynchronous learning networks on individual and group problem solving: A field experiment. Group Decision and Negotiation 8: 409–426, 1999.
Hiltz, S. R. Impacts of college-level courses via asynchronous learning networks: Some preliminary results. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 1(2): 1997.
Hammond, M. Issues associated with participation in online forums: The case of the communicative learner. Education and Information Technologies 4(4): 354–367, 1999.
Nachmias, R., D. Mioduser, A. Oren, and J. Ram. Web-supported emergent-collaboration in higher education courses. Educational Technology & Society 3(3): 94–104, 2000.
Johnson, D. W. and R. Johnson. Computer-assisted cooperative learning. Educational Technology 26(1): 12–18, 1989.
Johnson, D. W. and R. Johnson. Positive interdependence: key to effective cooperation. In R. Hertz-Lazarowitz and N. Miller (Eds), Interaction in Cooperative Groups: The Theoretical Anatomy of Group Learning, 174–199. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Kwok, R. C. W. and J. Ma. Use of a group support system for collaborative assessment. Computers & Education 32(2): 109–125, 1999.
Wilson, E. V. Examnet Asynchronous Learning Network: augmenting face-to-face course with student-developed exam questions. Computers & Education 42: 87–107, 2004.
Shindler, J. Examining the soundness of collaborative essay exams in teacher education courses. National Forum of Teacher Education Journal 12(3): 2003.
Shen, J. Collaborative Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks: Field Experiments On Collaborative Learning Through Online Assessments. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Information Systems, NJIT, May, 2005. Online: http://www.alnresearch.org.
Topping, K. J. Peer assessment between students in college and university. Review of Educational Research 68(3): 249–276, 1998.
Sluijsmans, D. M. A., S. Brand-Gruwel, J. Van Merriënboer, and T. R. Bastiaens. The Training of Peer Assessment Skills to Promote the Development of Reflection Skills in Teacher Education. Studies in Educational Evaluation 29(1): 23–42, 2003.
Harasim, L. On-line Education: Perspectives on a New Environment. New York: Praeger, 1990.
Levin, J. A., H. Kim, and M. M. Riel. Analyzing Instructional Interactions on Electronic Message Networks. In L. Harasim (Ed.), On-line Education: Perspectives on a New Environment. New York: Praeger, 1990.
Hiltz, S. R. The Virtual Classroom: Learning without Limits via Computer Networks. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1994.
Poole, D. M. Student participation in a discussion-oriented online course: A case study. Journal of Research on Computing in Education 33(2): 162–177, 2000.
Garrison, D. R. Cognitive presence for effective asynchronous online learning: The role of reflective inquiry, self-direction and metacognition. In J. Bourne & J. C. Moore (Eds.), Elements of Quality Online Education: Practice and Direction, 47–58. Needham, MA: Sloan-C, 2003.
Walther, J. Interpersonal effects in computer mediated interaction. Communication Research 21(4): 460–487, 1994.
Gunawardena, C. Social presence theory and implications for interaction and collaborative learning in computer conferences. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications 1(2/3): 147–166, 1995.
Rourke, L., T. Anderson, D. R. Garrison, and W. Archer. Assessing social presence in asynchronous text-based computer conferencing. Journal of Distance Education 14(2): 2001. Online: http://cade.icaap.org/vol14.2/rourke_et_al.html.
Rovai, A. P. A preliminary look at structural differences in sense of classroom community between higher education traditional and ALN courses. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 6(1): 41–56, 2002.
Swan, K. Building communities in online courses: The importance of interaction. Education, Communication and Information 2(1): 23–49, 2002.
Gunawardena, C. and F. Zittle. Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction within a computer mediated conferencing environment. American Journal of Distance Education 11(3): 8–26, 1997.
Wegerif, R. The social dimension of asynchronous learning networks. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks,2(1): 34–49 ,1998.
Tu, C. H. On-line learning migration: from social learning theory to social presence theory in CMC environment. Journal of Network and Computer Applications 23(1): 27–37, 2000.
Picciano, A. G. Beyond student perceptions: Issues of interaction, presence and performance in an online course. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 6(1): 21–40, 2002.
Richardson, J. C. and K. Swan. Examining social presence in online courses in relation to students' perceived learning and satisfaction. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 7(1): 68–88, 2003.
Hawisher, G. E. and M. A. Pemberton. Writing across the curriculum encounters asynchronous learning networks or WAC meets up with ALN. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 1(1): 1997.
Jiang, M. and E. Ting. A study of factors influencing students’ perceived learning in a web-based course environment. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications 6(4): 317–338, 2000.
Swan, K., P. Shea, E. Fredericksen, A Pickett, W. Pelz, and G. Maher, G. Building knowledge building communities: Consistency, contact and communication in the virtual classroom. Journal of Educational Computing Research 23(4): 389–413, 2000.
Swan, K. Virtual interactivity: Design factors affecting student satisfaction and perceived learning in asynchronous online courses. Distance Education 22(2): 306–331, 2001.
Jaffee, D. Asynchronous learning: Technology and pedagogical strategy in a computer-mediated distance learning course. Teaching Sociology 25(4): 262–277, 1997.
Vinaja, R., and M. Raisinghani. Analysis of strategies used in teaching an online course in a predominantly hispanic university. JCSC, March: 70–79, 2001.
Saltz, J., S. R. Hiltz, and M. Turoff. Student Social Graphs: Visualizing a Student’s Online Social Network. Proceedings, CSCW ’04, 2004.
Zumbach, J. and P. Reimann. Combining Computer Supported Collaborative Argumentation and Problem-Based Learning: an Approach for Designing Online Learning Environments, 1999. Online: http://d3e.open.ac.uk/cscl99/Zumbach/Zumbach-paper.html.
Pelz, W. (My) Three principles of effective online pedagogy. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 8(3): 33–46, 2004.
Ho, C. H. Assessing Electronic Discourse: A Case Study in Developing Evaluation Rubrics. Paper presented at the 14th Annual Meeting of the Society for Text and Discourse (ST&D). Chicago, August 1–4, 2004.
Grice, H. P. Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.
Dillenbourg, P. and D. Schneider. Collaborative Learning and the Internet. ICCAI 95, 1995. Online: http://tecfa.unige.ch/tecfa/research/CMC/colla/iccai95_1.html.
Johnson, D. W. and R. Johnson. Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, Fifth Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1994.
Pressley, M. and C. R. McCormick, Advanced Educational Psychology for Educators, Researchers, and Policy Makers. New York: Harper Collins, 1995.
Slavin, R. E. Cooperative Learning. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1995.
Curtis, D. D. and M. J. Lawson. Exploring collaborative online learning. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 5(1): 21–34, 2001.
Gunawardena, C. N., Lowe, C. A. & Anderson, T. Analysis of a global online debate and the development of an interaction analysis model for examining social construction of knowledge in computer conferencing. Journal of Educational Computing Research 17(4): 397–431, 1997.
Hoag, A. and T. F. Baldwin. Using case method and experts in inter-university electronic learning teams. Educational Technology and Society 3(3), 337–348, 2000.
Sturgill, A., W. Martin, and G. Gay. Surviving technology: A study of student use of computer-mediated communication to support technology education. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications 5(3): 239–259, 1999.
Fisher, K., Phelps, R. and A. Ellis. Group processes online: Teaching collaboration through collaborative processes. Educational Technology & Society 3(3): 484–495, 2000.
Palloff, R. and K. Pratt. Building Learning Communities in Cyberspace: Effective Strategies for the Online Classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.
Macdonald, J. Assessing online collaborative learning: Process and product. Computers and Education 40(4): 377–391, 2003.
Freeman, M. and J. McKenzie. SPARK, a Confidential Web-based Template for Self and Peer Assessment of Student Teamwork: Benefits of Evaluating Across Different Subjects. British Journal of Educational Technology 33(5): 551–569, 2002.
Boud, D., R. Cohen, and J. Sampson. Peer learning and assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 24(4): 413–426, 1999.
Murphy, K. L., S. E. Mahoney, and T. J. Harvell. Role of contracts in enhancing community building in web courses. Educational Technology and Society 3(3): 409–421, 2000.
Shen, J., K.-E. Cheng, Y. Cho, S. R. Hiltz, and M. Bieber. Evaluation of an on-line collaborative examination process. Proceedings of the 2000 Americas Conference on Information Systems, CD ROM, 2000.
Shen, J., S. R. Hiltz, K.-E. Cheng, Y. Cho, Y. and M. Bieber. Collaborative examinations for asynchronous learning networks: Evaluation results. Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, Maui, Hawaii, IEEE Computer Society Press, 2001.
Shen, J., K.-E.Cheng, ,M. Bieber, and S. R. Hiltz. Traditional in-class Examination vs. collaborative online examination in asynchronous learning networks: Field evaluation results. Proceedings, Americas Conference on Information Systems 2004, New York City, NY.
Shen, J., S. R. Hiltz, and M. Bieber. Collaborative assessment in asynchronous learning networks: Research in progress. In J. Bourne and J. C. Moore (eds.). Elements of Quality Online Education: Engaging Communities, Volume 6 in the Sloan-C Series. Needham, MA: Sloan-C, 2005.
Wu, D., M. Bieber, S. R. Hiltz, S. R. and H. Han. Constructivist learning with participatory examinations. Proceedings of the HICSS 37th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, Big Island, Hawaii, IEEE Computer Society Press, CD-ROM, 2004.
Bruffee, K. A. Collaborative learning: higher education. Interdependence and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Corbitt, G., L. Wright, L. and B. Martz. Addressing the challenges of the future: Implementing a collaborative student environment at a university business school. Proceedings of the 32nd Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 1999.
As a condition of publication, the author agrees to apply the Creative Commons – Attribution International 4.0 (CC-BY) License to OLJ articles. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
This licence allows anyone to reproduce OLJ articles at no cost and without further permission as long as they attribute the author and the journal. This permission includes printing, sharing and other forms of distribution.
Author(s) hold copyright in their work, and retain publishing rights without restrictions