David M. Anderson, Carol J. Haddad


A self-selected sample of 109 online students at a midwestern regional university was surveyed and asked to compare expression of voice, control over learning, and perceived deep learning outcomes in face-to-face versus online course environments. We found that females experience greater perceived deep learning in online than in face-to-face courses, and that expression of voice appears to contribute to this outcome. This effect did not occur for male students. We also found that professor support and, to a lesser extent, control over one's learning each had positive relationships with perceived deep learning in both course environments. Concern for the feelings of other students did not have a negative impact on voice as was originally hypothesized.


Online teaching,online learning,women,gender,voice,postsecondary education

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