Manifestations of Cognitive Presence in Blended Learning Classes of the Philippine K-12 System

Juliet Aleta Rivera Villanueva, Petrea Redmond, Linda Galligan


Through an exploratory case study, this research sought to determine the applicability of the Community of Inquiry in the K–12 setting. There are research gaps to leverage support for blended learning and flexible learning options to benefit Filipino youth and school-leavers under the Alternative Delivery Mode of the Philippine K–12 system. This study was driven by the following research questions: How is cognitive presence manifested in the blended learning interactions? In what ways do the interactions of cognitive presence with the other presences characterize learning community building? Three blended learning classes were examined based on data collected through surveys, student focus group discussions, teacher interviews, class observations and archived data. Through constant comparison analysis and descriptive statistics, evidence revealed cognitive presence across its categories in the form of connectedness, collaborative work, trust and reciprocation, and shared views on technology by K–12 teachers and learners. The analysis affirmed “regulating learning” as the intersection of cognitive presence and teaching presence. Implications for practice and recommendations for further research are discussed through the study's proposed modifications on the cognitive presence categories, indicators, and the survey instrument for the K–12 setting where teacher-directed pedagogies or collaborative inquiry processes have not been thoroughly co-opted.


Cognitive presence, blended learning, Community of Inquiry, Philippines, K-12, shared metacognition, self-regulation

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