Rules of Engagement: Considering Good Policy and Practice with Online Military Learners

David Starr-Glass

Abstract


In online distance learning environments military learners are not particularly obvious or distinctive; however, they do possess a degree of difference that needs to be recognized. The military can be considered to possess a Janusian culture; two distinctive cultural patterns that emerge in different situations. The culture they display in online distance learning situations is not particularly different from their non-military peers; however, online facilitators should be aware of their other cultural dimension and the difficulties that they encounter in participating online. Drawn from the author’s ten years of working with military learners, this article explains these different cultural perspectives, explores the negative impacts of stereotyping, and provides practical suggestions for harnessing the strengths of these learners in productive online learning.

Keywords


Military learner, online distance learning, online facilitation, stereotypes

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ackerman, R., & DiRamio, D. (2009). Creating a veteran-friendly campus: strategies for transition and success: New Directions for Student Services, No. 126. San Francisco, CA: Wiley/ Jossey-Bass.

Armor, D. J., & Gilroy, C. L. (2010). Changing minority representation in the U.S military. Armed Forces & Society, 36(2), 223-246.

Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University. (1998). Reinventing undergraduate education: A blueprint for America’s research universities. New York, NY: State University of New York Stony Brook.

Chang, J. (2011). A case study of the ‘Pygmalion Effect’: Teacher expectations and student achievement. International Education Studies, 4(1), 198-201.

Coleman, P. (2006). Flashback: Posttraumatic stress disorder, suicide, and the lessons of war. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Conrad, D. (2009). Cognitive, instructional, and social presence as factors in learners’ negotiation of planned absences from online study. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/630/1296

De Neys, W., & Vanderputte, K. (2011). When less is not always more: Stereotype knowledge and reasoning development. Psychology, 47(2), 432-441.

DiRamio, D., & Jarvis, K. (2011). Veterans in higher education: When Johnny and Jane come marching to campus. ASHE Higher Education Report, 37(3), 1-144.

DoD (Department of Defense). (2012). 2012 Demographics: Profile of the military community. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Military Community and Family Policy). Retrieved from http://www.militaryonesource.mil/12038/MOS/Reports/2012_Demographics_Report.pdf

Dorn, E., Graves, H. D., Ulmer Jr., W. F., Collins, J. J., & Jacobs, T. O. (2000). American military culture in the twenty-first century. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved from http://csis.org/publication/american-military-culture-twenty-first-century

Downs, A. D., & Murtazashvili, I. (2012). Arms and the university: Military presence and the civic education of non-military. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

English, A. D. (2004). Understanding military culture: A Canadian perspective. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Epley, N., & Gilovich, T. (2006). The anchoring-and-adjustment heuristic: Why the adjustments are insufficient. Psychological Science, 17(4), 311-318.

Gadon, O., & Johnson, C. (2009). The effect of a derogatory professional label: Evaluations of a ‘shrink.’ Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(3), 634-655.

Griffin, K., & Gilbert, C. (2012). Easing the transition from combat to classroom: Preserving America's investment in higher education for military veterans through institutional assessment. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved from http://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/issues/2012/04/pdf/student_veterans.pdf

Guglielmino, L. M., Long, H. B., & Hiemstra, R. (2004). Self-direction in learning in the United States. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 1(1), 1-17.

Hairston, K. R. (2010). A composite counterstorytelling: Memoirs of African American military students in Hawaii public schools. The Qualitative Report, 15(4), 783-801. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR15-4/hairston.pdf

Hall, L. K. (2008). Counselling military families: What mental health professionals need to know. London, UK: Routledge.

Hall, L. K. (2011). The importance of understanding military culture. Social Work in Health Care, 50(1), 4-18.

Harkin, T. (2010). Benefitting whom? For-Profit education companies and the growth of military educational benefits. Washington, DC: United States Senate – Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee. Retrieved from http://www.harkin.senate.gov/documents/pdf/4d0bbba63cba1.pdf

Harrell, M. C., & Berglass, N. (2012). Employing America's veterans: Perspectives from businesses. Washington, DC: Center for a New American Security. Retrieved from http://www.cnas.org/files/documents/publications/CNAS_EmployingAmericasVeterans_HarrellBerglass.pdf

Hilton, J. L., & von Hippel, W. (1996). Stereotypes. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 237-271.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequence: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Hofstede, G. (1986). Cultural differences in teaching and learning. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(3), 301-320.

Kelty, R., Kleykamp, M., & Segal, D. R. (2010). The military and the transition to adulthood. The Future of Children, 20(1), 181-207.

Knowles, M. S. (1970). The modern practice of adult education: Andragogy versus pedagogy. New York, NY: Association Press.

Knowles, M. S. (1984). Andragogy in action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Kudler, H., & Porter, R. I. (2013). Building communities of care for military children and families. Future of Children, 23(2), 163-185.

Lang, K. (1965). Military organizations. In J. G. March (Ed.), Handbook of organizations, (pp. 838-878). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.

Macrae, C. N., Milne, A. B., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (1994). Stereotypes as energy-saving devices: A peek inside the cognitive toolbox. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(1), 37-47

Martin, T. L. (2012). Combat in the classroom. Writing on the Edge, 22(2), 27-35.

McBain, L., Kim, Y. M., Cook, B. J., & Snead, K. M. (2012). From soldier to student II: Assessing campus programs for veterans and service members. Washington, DC: American Council on Education (ACE).

Mensch, K. G, & Rahschulte, T. (2008). Military leader development and autonomous learning: Responding to the growing complexity of warfare. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 19(3), 263-272.

Merriam, S. B., & Caffarella, R. S. (1991). Learning in adulthood. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Osland, J. S., & Bird, A. (2000). Beyond sophisticated stereotyping: Cultural sense making in context. Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 65-77.

Park, N. (2011). Military children and families: Strengths and challenges during peace and war. American Psychologist, 66(1), 65-72.

Ponton, M. K., & Carr, P. B. (2000). Understanding and promoting autonomy in self-directed learning. Current Research in Social Psychology 5(19), 271-284.

Ponton, M. K., Derrick, M. G., & Carr, P. B. (2005). The relationship between resourcefulness and persistence in adult autonomous learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 55(2), 116-128.

Radford, A. W. (2009). Military service members and veterans in higher education: What the new GI Bill may mean for postsecondary institutions. Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Retrieved from http://www.operationpromiseforservicemembers.com/ACE%20MilService.errata.pdf

Radford, A. W., & Weko, T. (2011). Military service members and veterans: A profile of those enrolled in undergraduate and graduate education in 2007–08. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Educational Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011163.pdf

Riley, T., & Ungerleider, C. (2012). Self-fulfilling prophecy: How teachers; attributions, expectations, and stereotypes influence the learning opportunities afforded aboriginal students. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(2), 303-333.

Shackelford, J. L., & Maxwell, M. (2012). Sense of community in graduate online education: Contribution of learner to learner interaction. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(4), 228-249. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1339/2346

Soeters, J. L., & Recht, R. (1998). Culture and discipline in military academies: An international comparison. Journal of Political & Military Sociology, 26(2), 169-190.

Soeters, J. L., Winslow, D. J., & Weibull, A. (2006). Military culture. In G. Caforio (Ed.), Handbook of the sociology of the military, (pp. 237-254). New York, NY: Springer.

Starr-Glass, D. (2011a). Military Learners: Experience in the design and management of online learning environments. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 7(1), 147-158. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol7no1/starr-glass_0311.pdf

Starr-Glass, D. (2011b). Beginning course surveys: Bridges to knowing and bridges to being. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(5), 135-157. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1000/1895

Starr-Glass, D. (2013). Experience of military learners online: Towards mindful practice. Journal of Online Teaching and Learning, 9(3), 353-363. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol9no3/starr-glass_0913.pdf

Starr-Glass, D. (2014a). Moderating the effective co-creation of knowledge in asynchronous online conferences. In C. N. Stevenson and J. C. Bauer (Eds.), Building online communities in higher education institutions: Creating collaborative experience, (pp. 258-278). Hershey, PA: IGI-Global.

Starr-Glass, D. (2014b). Three degrees of separation: Strategies for mentoring distanced transnational learners. In F. J. García-Peñalvo and A. M. Seoane-Pardo (Eds.), Online tutor 2.0: Methodologies and case studies for successful learning, (pp. 176-200). Hershey, PA: IGI-Global.

Steele, J. L., Salcedo, N., & Coley, J. (2010). Service members in school: Military veterans' experiences using the Post-9/11 GI Bill and pursuing postsecondary education. Washington, DC: RAND Corporation and American Council on Education. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2011/RAND_MG1083.pdf

Sternberg, M., MacDermid, S., Vaughan, J., & Carlson, R. (2009). The higher education landscape. West Lafayette, IN: Military Family Research Institute, Purdue University. Retrieved from https://www.mfri.purdue.edu/resources/public/reports/HigherEducationLandscape.pdf

Supplemental Appropriations Act (2008). Public Law No. 110-252, § 4002, 122 Statute 2323 (2008). Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ252/pdf/PLAW-110publ252.pdf

Swail, W. S., Redd, K. E., & Perna, L. W. (2003). Retaining minority students in higher education. Stafford, VA: Educational Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.educationalpolicy.org/pdf/Retaining%20Minority%20Students.pdf

Taylor, B., & Kroth, M. (2009). Andragogy’s transition into the future: Meta-analysis of andragogy and its search for a measureable instrument. MPAEA Journal of Adult Education, 38(1), 1-11. Retrieved from https://www.mpaea.org/docs/pdf/Vol38No12009.pdf

United States Senate. (2012). For profit higher education: The failure to safeguard the federal investment and ensure student success. Washington, DC: United States Senate – Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee. Retrieved from http://www.help.senate.gov/imo/media/for_profit_report/PartI-PartIII-SelectedAppendixes.pdf




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24059/olj.v19i1.475



Copyright (c)