Expanding Learning Presence to Account for the Direction of Regulative Intent: Self-, Co- and Shared Regulation in Online Learning


  • Suzanne Hayes Empire State College, State University of New York
  • Sedef Uzuner-Smith Lamar University
  • Peter Shea University at Albany, State University of New York




Community of inquiry model, learning presence, self-regulation, co-regulation, shared regulation, discourse


As the pivotal role of self-regulation has been widely accepted in online learning literature, much interest is focused on identifying pedagogical strategies to help foster regulatory behaviors in online learners. The authors of this article argue that the learning presence (LP) construct, a recently proposed addition to the Community of Inquiry (CoI) theoretical framework of online learning, needs to be included in these conversations. To this end, they re-articulate and clarify the underlying structure of LP by drawing on the theoretical models of self-regulation, co-regulation, and socially shared regulation. They further present examples to illustrate how LP can manifest itself in learners’ discourse in the online learning environment. Finally, they conclude by outlining strategies online instructors can use to help learners execute regulatory behaviors and thus demonstrate LP in online courses.

Author Biographies

Suzanne Hayes, Empire State College, State University of New York

Ph.D. Director Library Information Services Office of Academic Affairs

Sedef Uzuner-Smith, Lamar University

Ph.D. Assistant Professor College of Education

Peter Shea, University at Albany, State University of New York

Ph.D. Associate Provost for Online Learning Associate Professor School of Education






Community of Inquiry, Avatars, and Video