Educators' Preparation to Teach, Perceived Teaching Presence, and Perceived Teaching Presence Behaviors in Blended and Online Learning Environments

Lisa E Gurley, PhD, RN, CNE, COI

Abstract


Teaching in blended and online learning environments requires different pedagogical approaches than teaching in face-to-face learning environments.  How educators are prepared to teach potentially impacts the quality of instruction provided in blended and online learning courses. Teaching presence is essential to achieving student learning outcomes, yet previous research has focused on student perceptions of teaching presence.  Therefore, the purpose of this mixed methods convergent parallel study was to explore educators’ preparation to teach, perceived teaching presence, and perceived teaching presence behaviors in blended and online learning environments.  The study was designed to examine the differences in educators’ perceived teaching presence and preparation to teach in blended and online learning environments.  An adapted Community of Inquiry Survey Instrument was used to measure faculty perceptions of teaching presence.  Results indicated a statistically significant difference between perceived teaching presence of facilitation for faculty that completed certification courses in preparation to teach in blended and online learning environments, as compared to faculty that only received on-the-job training.  Qualitative responses to corresponding interview questions supported the findings.  The findings of this study provide information to university educators and administrators supporting the importance of faculty preparation specific to teaching in blended and online learning environments.  


Keywords


teaching presence, teaching presence behaviors, teaching presence of facilitation, certified online instructor, faculty perceptions, blended learning, online learning, faculty development, faculty preparation, Community of Inquiry

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akyol, Z., & Garrison, R. (2008). The development of a community of inquiry over time in an online course: Understanding the progression and integration of social, cognitive, and teaching presence. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 12(3-4), 3-22. Retrieved from http://olj.onlinelearningconsortium.org/index.php/jaln

Ali, N. S., Hodson-Carlton, K., Ryan, M., Flowers, J., Rose, M. A., & Wayda, V. (2005). Online education: Needs assessment for faculty development. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 36(1), 32-38. Retrieved from http://www.healio.com/nursing/journals/jcen

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2013). Changing course: Ten years of tracking online education in the United States. Babson Survey Research Group and Quahog Research Group, LLC. Retrieved from http://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/changingcourse.pdf

American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN]. (2003). Alliance for accreditation statement on distance education policies. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/distance-education-policies

Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, D. R., & Archer, W. (2001). Assessing teaching presence in a computer conferencing context. The Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(2), 1-17. Retrieved from http://olj.onlinelearningconsortium.org/index.php/jaln

Arbaugh, J. B. (2008). Does the community of inquiry framework predict outcomes in online MBA courses? International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(2), 1-21. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/index

Arbaugh, J. B., Cleveland-Innes, M., Diaz, S. R., Garrison, D. R., Ice, P., Richardson, J. C., & Swan, K. P. (2008). Developing a community of inquiry instrument: Testing a measure of the community of inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample. The Internet and Higher Education, 11(3-4), 133-136. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2008.06.003

Arinto, P. B. (2013). A framework for developing competencies in open and distance learning. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(1), 167-185. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl

Baran, E., & Correia, A. (2014). A professional development framework for online teaching. TechTrends, 58(5), 96-102. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/journal/11528

Baran, E., Correia, A., & Thompson, A. D. (2013). Tracing successful online teaching in higher education: Voices of exemplary online teachers. Teachers College Record, 115, 1-41. Retrieved from http://www.tcrecord.org/

Bolliger, D. U., & Wasilik, O. (2009). Factors influencing faculty satisfaction with online teaching and learning in higher education. Distance Education, 30(1), 103-116. doi: 10.1080/01587910902845949

Campbell, D. E. (2014). The influence of teacher immediacy behaviors on student performance in an online course (and the problem of method variance). Teaching of Psychology, 41(2), 163-166. doi: 10.1177/0098628314530351

Carlon, S., Bennett-Woods, D., Berg, B., Claywell, L., LeDuc, K., Marcisz, N., Mulhall, M., … Zenoni, L. (2012). The community of inquiry instrument: Validation and results in online health care disciplines. Computers & Education, 59(2), 215-221. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.01.004

Dereshiwsky, M. (2013). Continual engagement: Fostering online discussion. RiverFalls, WI: LERN Books.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105. doi: 10.1016/S1096-7516(00)00016-6

Garrison, D. R., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(3), 157-172. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2007.04.001

Garrison, D. R., & Cleveland-Innes, M. (2005). Facilitating cognitive presence in online learning: Interaction is not enough. American Journal of Distance Education, 19(3), 133-148. doi: 10.1207/s15389286ajde1903_2

Garrison, D. R., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Fung, T. S. (2010). Exploring causal relationships among teaching, cognitive and social presence: Student perceptions of the community of inquiry framework. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(1-2), 31-36. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.10.002

Lane, L. (2013). An open, online class to prepare faculty to teach online. Journal of Educators Online, 10(1), 1-31. Retrieved from http://thejeo.com/

MaCorr Research Solutions Online. (2015). Sample size calculator. Retrieved from http://www.macorr.com/sample-size-calculator.htm

McDonald, P. L., & Picciano, A. G. (2014). Introduction to the special issue on blended learning in the health sciences. Online Learning, 18(4), 7-11. Retrieved from http://olj.onlinelearningconsortium.org/index.php/jaln

Moore, J. C. (2010). A synthesis of SLOAN-C effective practices. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 14(3), 24-45. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ971042.pdf

O’Neil, C. A. (2014). Introduction to teaching and learning in online environments. In C. A. O’Neil, C. A. Fisher, & M. J. Rietschel (Eds.), Developing online learning environments in nursing education (3rd ed., pp. 1-13). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.

Rovai, A. P., & Jordan, H. M. (2004). Blended learning and sense of community: A comparative analysis with traditional and fully online graduate courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 5(2), 1-8. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/192/274

Ryan, M., Hodson-Carlton, K., & Ali, N. S. (2004). Reflections on the role of faculty in distance learning and changing pedagogies. Nursing Education Perspectives, 25(2), 73-80. Retrieved from http://www.nln.org/newsroom/newsletters-and-journal/nursing-education-perspectives-journal

Sadera, W. A., O’Neil, C. A., & Gould, K. A. (2014). Pedagogy associated with learning in online environments. In C. A. O’Neil, C. A. Fisher, & M. J. Rietschel (Eds.), Developing online learning environments in nursing education (3rd ed., pp. 15-28). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.

Saint-Jacques, A. (2013). Effective teaching practices to foster vibrant communities of inquiry in synchronous online learning. In Z. Akyol & R. Garrison. Educational communities of inquiry: Theoretical framework, research, and practice (pp. 84-108). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Shea, P., & Bidjerano, T. (2009). Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster “epistemic engagement” and “cognitive presence” in online education. Computers & Education, 52(3), 543-553. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2008.10.007

Shea, P., Li, C. S., Swan, K., & Pickett, A. (2005). Developing learning community in online asynchronous college courses: The role of teaching presence. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 9(4), 59-82. Retrieved from http://onlinelearningconsortium.org/read/online-learning-journal/

Shea, P., Vickers, J., & Hayes, S. (2010). Online instructional effort measured through the lens of teaching presence in the community of inquiry framework: A re-examination of measures and approaches. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11(3), 127-153. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl

Sheridan, K., Kelly, M. A., & Bentz, D. T. (2013). A follow-up study of the indicators of teaching presence critical to students in online courses. In Z. Akyol & R. Garrison. Educational communities of inquiry: Theoretical framework, research, and practice (pp. 67-83). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Stavredes, T. (2011). Effective online teaching: Foundations and strategies for student success. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Swan, K., Garrison, D. R., & Richardson, J. C. (2009). A constructivist approach to online learning: The community of inquiry framework. In C. R. Payne (Ed.) Information technology and constructivism in higher education: Progressive learning frameworks (pp. 43-57). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Retrieved from http://www.cosa.k12.or.us/sites/default/files/docs/constructivisim.pdf

Swan, K. P., Richardson, J. C., Ice, P., Garrison, D. R., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2008). Validating a measurement tool of presence in online communities of inquiry. e-mentor, 2(24), 1-12. Retrieved from www.e-mentor.edu.pl/eng

Tolu, A. T., & Evans, L. S. (2013). From distance education to communities of inquiry: A review of historical developments. In Z. Akyol & R. Garrison (Eds.), Educational communities of inquiry: Theoretical framework, research, and practice (pp. 45-65). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

United States Department of Education. (2014). Enrollment in distance education courses, by state: Fall 2012. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014023.pdf




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24059/olj.v22i2.1255