A structural equation model of predictors of online learners’ engagement and satisfaction





Community of Inquiry, structural equation modeling, online learning, social presence, teaching presence, cognitive presence, engagement, satisfaction


This study investigated the structural relationships among online learners’ teaching, social and cognitive presence, engagement, and satisfaction. Data were collected from graduate students enrolled in an online graduate program at a large Midwestern public university through online surveys. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data. According to the results, teaching presence, cognitive presence, emotional engagement, behavioral engagement, and cognitive engagement were significant predictors of satisfaction and these determinants explained 88% of the variance in satisfaction. The results indicate that the dominant determinant of the satisfaction was teaching presence, which had direct and indirect effects on satisfaction. Moreover, the study revealed significant predictors of emotional, behavioral, cognitive and agentic engagement.  Implications are discussed in terms of theoretical insights, practices for online learning environments, and further research directions.

Author Biographies

Sevda Kucuk, Istanbul University

Dr. at the Department of Computer Education & Instructional Technology, Istanbul University, 34452-Istanbul TURKEY

Jennifer C Richardson, Purdue University

Prof. Dr. at the College of Education, Purdue University, 100 N. University St., West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA 


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