One Size Does Not Fit All: Toward an Evidence-Based Framework for Determining Online Course Enrollment Sizes in Higher Education

Susan H. Taft, Karen Kesten, Majeda M. El-Banna

Abstract


Class enrollment sizes for online learning in higher education, a topic of persistent interest in the academic literature, impact student learning, pedagogical strategies, school finances, and faculty workload. Yet in the research literature class size is addressed with insufficient specificity to provide enrollment direction. Seeking guidelines for determining online class sizes, the authors conducted a qualitative research synthesis from 43 recent higher education journals, yielding 58 evidence-based articles. It is clear that no one size fits all. Findings reflect that large class sizes (≥ 40 students) are effective for foundational and factual knowledge acquisition requiring less individualized faculty-student interaction. Small class sizes (≤ 15 students) are indicated for courses intending to develop higher-order thinking, mastery of complex knowledge, and student skill development. Pedagogical intent should dictate class size. Using well-established learning theories, the authors describe current understandings of online enrollments and propose an analytical framework for pedagogically-driven numerically-specific class sizes.


Keywords


Class size, Online pedagogy, Objectivism, Constructivism, Bloom’s taxonomy, Community of inquiry

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson, T., Rourke, L. Garrison, D.R., & Archer, W. (2001). Assessing teaching presence in a

computer conferencing context. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(2), 1-17. Retrieved from http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jalnv5n2/pdf/v5n2_anderson.pdf

Arbaugh, J.R. (2007). An empirical verification of the community of inquiry framework. Journal

of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(1). Retrieved from

http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v111n1/v11n1_9arbaugh.as

Arbaugh, J.B., & Benbunan-Fich, R. (2005). Contextual factors that influence ALN

effectiveness. In S.R. Hiltz & R. Goldman (Eds.), Learning together online: Research on

asynchronous learning networks (pp. 123-44). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum

Associates, Publishers.

Arbaugh, J. B., & Benbunan-Fich, R. (2006). An investigation of epistemological and social

dimensions of teaching in online learning environments. Academy of Management

Learning & Education, 5(4), 435-447.

Arbaugh, J.B., Cleveland-Innes, M., Diaz, S.R., Garrison, D.R., Ice, P., Richardson, J.C., &

Swan, K.P. (2008). Developing a community of inquiry instrument: Testing a measure of

the community of inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample. Internet and

Higher Education, 11(3), 133–136. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2008.06.003

Arias, J. J., & Walker, D. M. (2004). Additional evidence on the relationship between class size

and student performance. The Journal of Economic Education, 35(4), 311–329.

Armstrong, P. (n.d.). Bloom's taxonomy. Center for Teaching, Vanderbilt University. Retrieved

from https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/blooms-taxonomy/

Artemiou, E., Adams, C.L., Vallevand, A., Violato, C., & Hecker, K.G. (2013). Measuring the

effectiveness of small-group and web-based training methods in teaching clinical

communication: A case comparison study. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education,

(3), 242-51. doi:10.3138/jvme.0113-026R1

Arzt, J. (2011, October 21). Online courses and optimal class size: A complex formula.

Unpublished manuscript, St. Joseph College. Retrieved from

http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED529663.pdf

Authors. (2011).

Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Batts, D. (2008, December). Comparison of student and instructor perceptions of best practices

in online technology courses. Merlot Journal of Online Teaching and Learning, 4(4),

-489. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol4no4/batts_1208.pdf

Beattie, I.R., & Thiele, M. (2016). Connecting in class? College class size and inequality in

academic social capital. The Journal of Higher Education, 87(3), 332-362.

Bedard, K., & Kuhn, P. (2008). Where class size really matters: Class size and student ratings of

instructor effectiveness. Economics of Education Review, 27(3), 253-265.

Benbunan-Fich, R., Hiltz, S. R., & Harasim, L. (2005). The online interaction learning model:

An integrated theoretical framework for learning networks. In S. R. Hiltz & R. Goldman

(Eds.), Learning together online: Research on asynchronous learning networks (pp. 19-

. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Benton, S.L., & Pallett, W.H. (2013, January). Class size matters. Inside Higher Education.

Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2013/01/29/essay-importance-

class-size-higher-education.

Berg, M., & Seeber, B.K. (2016). The slow professor: Challenging the culture of speed in the

academy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Bettinger, E., Doss, C., Loeb, S., Rogers, E., & Taylor, E. (2017, June). The effects of class size

in online college courses: Experimental evidence. Economics of Education Review, 58,

-95. doi:10.1016/J.ECONEDUREV.2017.03.006

Bettinger, E. & Loeb, S. (2017). Promises and pitfalls of online education. Brookings. Retrieved

from https://www.brookings.edu/research/promises-and-pitfalls-of-online-education/

Betts, K. (2008). Online Human Touch (OHT) instruction and programming: A conceptual

framework to increase student engagement and retention in online education, Part 1.

MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4(3), 399-418.

Blatchford, P., Bassett, P., & Brown, P. (2011). Examining the effect of class size on classroom

engagement and teacher–pupil interaction: Differences in relation to pupil prior

attainment and primary vs. secondary schools. Learning and Instruction, 21(6), 715-730.

doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.04.001

Bloom, B. (Ed.), Englehart, M.D., Furst, E.J., Hill, W.H., & Krathwohl. D.R. (1956). Taxonomy

of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive

Domain. New York: David McKay Co., Inc.

Bozkurt, A., Akgun-Ozbek, E., Yilmazel, S., Erdogdu, E., Ucar, H., Guler,, E., Sezgin, S., … &

Aydin, C.H. (2015). Trends in distance education research: A content analysis of journals

-2013. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(1),

-363. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1953/3192

Bristol, T.J., & Kyarsgaard, V. (2012). Asynchronous discussion: A Comparison of larger and

smaller discussion group size. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33(6), 386-390.

Brook, C., & Oliver, R. (2003). Online learning communities: Investigating a design framework.

Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 19(2), 139-60.

Chapman, L., & Ludlow, L. (2010). Can downsizing college class sizes augment student

outcomes? An investigation of the effects of class size on student learning. The Journal

of General Education, 59(2), 105-123. doi:10.5325/jgeneeduc.59.2.0105

Chen, B., deNoyelles, A., Zydney, J., & Patton, K. (2017). Creating a community of inquiry in

large-enrollment online courses: An exploratory study on the effect of protocols within

online discussions. Online Learning, 21(1), 165-188. doi:10.24059/ olj.v21i1.816

Cheng, D.A. (2011). Effects of class size on alternative educational outcomes across disciplines.

Economics of Education Review, 30(5), 980-990.

Chu, S.K.W., Zhang, Y., Chen, K., Chan, C.K., Lee, C.W.Y., Zou, E., & Lau, W. (2017). The

effectiveness of wikis for project-based learning in different disciplines in higher

education. Internet and Higher Education, 33, 49–60. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.01.005

Colwell, J., & Jenks, C. (2004). The upper limit: The issues for faculty in setting class size in

online courses. Proceedings from Conference, Teaching Online in Higher Education 2004

(TOHE). Retrieved from https://www.utm.edu/departments/ncate/documents/015_theupperlimit.pdf

Curriculum Committee. The Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. (2012).

Setting course enrollment maximums: Process, roles, and principles. (2012) Retrieved

from http://www.asccc.org/sites/default/files/ClassCapsS12_0.pdf

Diette, T.M., & Raghav, M. (2015). Class size matters: Heterogeneous effects of larger classes

on college student learning. Eastern Economic Journal, 41(2), 273–283.

De Giorgi, G., Pellizzari, M., & Woolston, W.G. (2012). Class size and class heterogeneity. Journal of the European Economic Association, 10(4), 795–830.

doi:10.1111/j.1542-4774.2012.01073.x

El Tantawi, M.M.A., Abdelsalem, M.M., Mourady, A.M., & Elrifae, I.M.B. (2015).

e-Assessment in a limited-resources dental school using an open-source learning

management system. Journal of Dental Education, 79(5), 571-83. Retrieved from

http://www.jdentaled.org/content/79/5/463.full

Fischer, G. (2014). Commentary: Beyond hype and underestimation: Identifying research

challenges for the future of MOOCs. Distance Education, 35(2), 149–158.

doi:10.1080/01587919.2014.920752

Freeman, L.A. (2015). Instructor time requirements to develop and teach online courses. Online

Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 18(1). Retrieved from

http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring181/freeman181.html

Garrison, D.R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching

presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(1). Retrieved from

http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/JALN/ v11n1/v11n1_8garrison.asp

Garrison, D.R. (2012). Article review - Social presence within the community of inquiry

framework. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(1).

Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1184/2099

Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment:

Computer conferencing in higher education. Internet and Higher Education, 2(3), 87-

Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2010). The first decade of the community of

inquiry framework: A retrospective. Internet and Higher Education, 13(1-2), 5-9.

Garrison, D.R., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Fung, T.S. (2010). Exploring causal relationships among

teaching, cognitive and social presence: Student perceptions of the community of inquiry

framework. Internet and Higher Education, 13(1-2), 31-36.

Gleason, J. (2012). Using technology-assisted instruction and assessment to reduce the effect of

class size on student outcomes in undergraduate mathematics courses. College Teaching,

(3), 87-94.

Goldman, Z. (2012). Online MBA asynchronous discussion workload and value perceptions for

instructors and learners: Working toward an integrated educational model for

professional adults. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8(3). Retrieved from:

http://jolt.merlot.org/vol8no3/goldman_0912.htm

Haynie, D. (2014, Sept. 26). Experts say class size can matter for online students. U.S. News &

World Report, Higher Education. Retrieved from

http://www.usnews.com/education/online-education/articles/2014/09/26/experts-say-

class-size-can-matter-for-online-students

Hew, K.F., & Cheung, W.S. (2011). Higher-level knowledge construction in asynchronous

online discussions: An analysis of group size, duration of online discussion, and student

facilitation techniques. Instructional Science, 39(3), 303-319. Retrieved from:

http://www.jstor.org/stable/23882804

Hewitt, J., & Brett, C. (2007). The relationship between class size and online activity patterns in

asynchronous computer conferencing environments. Computers & Education, 49(4),

–1271. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2006.02.001

Holtslander, L.F., Racine, L., Furniss, S., Burles, M., & Turner, H. (2012). Developing and

piloting an online graduate nursing course focused on experiential learning of qualitative

research methods. Journal of Nursing Education, 51(6), 345-348.

Holzweiss, P.C., Joyner, S.A., Fuller, M.B., Henderson, S. & Young, R. (2014). Online graduate

students' perceptions of best learning experiences. Distance Education, 35(3), 311-323.

doi:10.1080/01587919.2015.955262

Horning, A. (2007, Fall/Winter). The definitive article on class size. WPA, Writing Program

Administration, 31(1-2), 11-34. Councils of Writing Program Administrators. Retrieved

from http://wpacouncil.org/archives/31n1-2/31n1-2horning.pdf

Jaggars, S.S., & Xu, D. (2016). How do online course design features influence student

performance? Computers & Education, 95, 270-284.

doi:10.1016/J.COMPEDU.2016.01.014

Jahang, N., Nielsen, W., & Chan, E. (2010). Collaborative learning in an online course: A

comparison of communication patterns in small and whole group activities. Journal of

Distance Education, 24(2), 39–58.

Joksimović, S., Gašević, D., Kovanović, V., Riecke, B. E., & Hatala, M. (2015). Social presence

in online discussions as a process predictor of academic performance. Journal of

Computer Assisted Learning, 31(6), 638-654. doi:10.1111/jcal.12107

Johnson, I. (2010). Class size and student performance at a public research university: A cross-

classified model. Research in Higher Education, 51(8), 701–723.

Jones, S.H. (2015). Benefits and challenges of online education for clinical social work: Three

examples. Clinical Social Work Journal, 43(2), 225–235.

Kasi, E., & Yorks, L. (2016). Do I really know you? Do you really know me? Empathy amid

diversity in differing learning contexts. Adult Education Quarterly, 66(1), 3-20.

doi:10.1177/0741713615606965

Kim, J. (2013, March). Influence of group size on students’ participation in online discussion

forums. Computers & Education, 62, 123–129. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.025

Kingma, B., & Keefe, S. (2006). An analysis of the virtual classroom: Does size matter? Do

residencies make a difference? Should you hire that instructional designer? Journal of

Education for Library and Information Science, 47(2), 127–143.

Lahaie, U. (2007). Strategies for creating social presence online. Nurse Educator, 32(3), 100-

Lai, K. (2015). Knowledge construction in online learning communities: A case study of a

doctoral course. Studies in Higher Education, 40(4), 561–579.

Lee, S., Dapremont, J., & Sasser, J. (2011). Nursing students’ perception of class size and its

impact on test performance: A pilot study. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(12), 715-

Legg, T.J., Adelman, D., & Levitt, C. (2009). Constructivist strategies in online distance

education in nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(2), 64-69.

Leppa, C.J. (2004). Assessing student critical thinking through online discussions. Nurse

Educator, 29(4), 156-60.

Lindley, M.K. Ashwill, R., Cipher, D.J. & Mancini, M. E. (2017). Expanding capacity with an

accelerated on-line BSN program. Journal of Professional Nursing, 33(1), 5-10.

Liu, O. L. (2012). Student evaluation of instruction: In the new paradigm of distance education.

Research in Higher Education, 53(4), 471–486. doi:10.1007/s11162-011-9236-1

Mandel, P., & Sussmuth, B. (2011). Size matters. The relevance and Hicksian surplus of

preferred college class size. Economics of Education Review, 30(5), 1073–1084.

Mandernach, B.J., & Holbeck, R. (2016). Teaching online: Where do faculty spend their time?

Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 19(4). Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/%7Edistance/ojdla/winter194/mandernach_holbeck194.html

Maringe, F., & Sing, N. (2014, June). Teaching large classes in an increasingly internationalising

higher education environment: Pedagogical, quality and equity issues. Higher Education:

The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 67(6), 761-

Mbati, L., & Minnaar, A. (2015, April). Guidelines towards the facilitation of interactive online

learning programmes in higher education. International Review of Research in Open and

Distributed Learning, 16(2). Retrieved from

http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/2019/3269

Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M. & Jones, K.; Office of Planning, Evaluation, and

Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies Service: US Department of Education.

(2010). Evaluation of evidence based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and

review of online learning studies. Retrieved from

https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf

Meyer, K.A. (2006). The method (and madness) of evaluating online discussions. Journal of

Asynchronous Learning Networks, 10(4), 83-97.

Monks, J., & Schmidt, R.M. (2011). The impact of class size on outcomes in higher education.

The BE Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, 11(1), 1–17.

Morrison, D. (2015, January). Does class size matter in online courses? Three perspectives: The

economist, instructor & student. Online Learning Insights. Retrieved from

https://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/2015/01/14/does-class-size-matter-in-

online-courses-three-perspectives/

Mupinga, D. M., & Maughan, G. R. (2008). Web-based instruction and community college

faculty workload. College Teaching, 56(1), 17–21.

Orcutt, J.M., & Dringus, L.P. (2017). Beyond being there: Practices that establish presence,

engage students and influence intellectual curiosity in a structured online learning

environment. Online Learning, 21(3), 15-35. doi:10.24059/olj.v%vi%i.1231

Palmer, S., & Smith, C. (2013). Updating RIGs: Including the systematic influence of online

study on student evaluation of teaching. Educational Research and Evaluation, 19(1), 77-

Parks-Stamm, E.J., Zafonte, M., & Palenque, S.M. (2016, Sept. 29). The effects of instructor

participation and class size on student participation in an online class discussion forum.

British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(6), 1250-1259. doi:10.1111/bjet.12512

Paulus, T.M., Myers, C.R., Mixer, S.J., Wyatt, T.H., Lee, D.S., & Lee, J.L. (2010). For faculty,

by faculty: A case study of learning to teach online. International Journal of Nursing

Education Scholarship, 7(1), 1-16. doi:10.2202/1548-923X.1979 Retrieved from

http://www.bepress.com/ijnes/vol7/iss1/art13

Pelech, W., Wulff, D., Perrault, E., Ayala, J., Baynton, M., Williams, M., Crowder, R., &

Shankar, J. (2013). Current challenges in social work distance education: Responses from

the Elluminati. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 33(4-5), 393–407.

doi:10.1080/08841233.2013.834863

Picciano, A.G. (2017). Theories and frameworks for online education: Seeking an integrated

model. Online Learning, 21(3), 166-190. doi:10.24059/olj.v21i3.1225

Qiu, M., Hewitt, J., & Brett, C. (2012, Sept.). Online class size, note reading, note writing and

collaborative discourse. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative

Learning, 7(3), 423-442. doi:10.1007/s11412-012-9151-2

Ravenna, G. (2012). The effects of increased workloads on online instruction. International

Journal of Education, 4(4), 125-133. doi:10.5296/ije.v4i4.2269 Retrieved from

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1027.4534&rep=rep1&type=p

df

Rees, J. (2017, May 22). You can't automate good teaching. ChronicleVitae, The Chronicle of

Higher Education. Retrieved from https://chroniclevitae.com/news/1804-you-can-t-

automate-goodteaching?cid=wb&utm_source=wb&utm_medium=%20en&elqTrackId= c38776db41be42148fc8265cd2bc08b6&elq=75265e863d3a40b6989d358bb0911f34&elq

aid=14105&elqat=1&elqCampaignId=5909

Richardson, J.C., Koehler, A. A., Besser, E.D., Caskurlu, S., Lim, J., & Mueller, C.M. (2015,

June). Conceptualizing and investigating instructor presence in online learning

environments. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning,

(3). Retrieved from

http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/2123/3349

Roby, T., Ashe, S., Singh, N., & Clark, C. (2013, April). Shaping the online experience: How

administrators can influence student and instructor perceptions through policy and

practice. Internet and Higher Education, 17, 29-37. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.09.004

Russell, B.H. (2015). The who, what, and how of evaluation within online nursing education:

State of the science. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(1), 13-21.

Russell, V., & Curtis, W. (2013, January). Comparing a large- and small-scale online language

course: An examination of teacher and learner perceptions. Internet and Higher

Education, 16, 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.07.002

Salley, W., & Shaw, M. (2015). Employment status, teaching load, and student performance in

online community college courses. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration,

(2). Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla

Sapelli, C., & Illanes, G. (2016, June). Class size and teacher effects in higher education.

Economics of Education Review, 52, 19-28. doi:10.1016/j.econedurev.2016.01.001

Schellens, T., & Valcke, M. (2006). Fostering knowledge construction in university students

through asynchronous discussion groups. Computers & Education, 46(4), 349–370.

Seethamraju, R. (2014). Effectiveness of using online discussion forum for case study analysis.

Education Research International, 2014, 10 pages. doi:10.1155/2014/589860

Schwartz, M. (2014). KHAN Academy: The illusion of understanding. Journal of Asynchronous

Learning Networks, 17(4), 67-79.

Seaton, J.X., & Schwier, R. (2014). An exploratory case study of online instructors: Factors

associated with instructor engagement. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance

Education, 29(1), 1-16. Retrieved from

http://ijede.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/870/1536

Shaw, R-S. (2013, March). The relationships among group size, participation, and performance

of programming language learning supported with online forums. Computers &

Education, 62, 196-207. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.11.001

Shea, P. (2006). A study of students' sense of learning community in online environments.

Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 10(1), 35-44.

Smith, G. S., Brashen, H.M., Minor, M. A, Anthony, P. J. (2015). Stress: The insidious leveler of

good, unsuspecting, online instructors of higher education. Journal of Social Change,

(1), 56–68. doi:10.5590/JOSC.2015.07.1.05

Snowball, J.D. (2014). Using interactive content and online activities to accommodate

diversity in a large first year class. Higher Education, 67(6), 823-838. Retrieved from

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-013-9708-7

Sorensen, C. (2014, December). Classrooms without walls: A comparison of instructor

performance in online courses differing in class size. MERLOT Journal of Online

Learning and Teaching, 10(4), 569-576.

Sorensen, C. (2015). An examination of the relationship between online class size and instructor

performance. Journal of Educators Online, 12(1), 140–159. Retrieved from

https://www.thejeo.com/archive/2015_12_1/Sorensen

Stein, D.S., Wanstreet, C.E., Slagle, P., Trinko, L.A., & Lutz, M. (2014). From ‘hello’ to higher-

order thinking: The effect of coaching and feedback on online chats. Internet and Higher

Education, 16, 78–84. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.03.001

Swan, K., & Ice, P. (2010). Preface: The community of inquiry framework ten years later:

Introduction to the special issue. Internet and Higher Education, 13(1-2), 1-4.

doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.11.003

Swan, K., & Shea, P. (2005). The development of virtual learning

communities. In S.R. Hiltz &

R. Goldman (Eds.), Learning together online: Research on asynchronous learning

networks (pp. 239-60). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Sword, T. S. (2012). The transition to online teaching as experienced by nurse educators.

Nursing Education Perspectives, 33(4), 269-271.

Tomei, L.A. (2006). The impact of online teaching on faculty load: Computing the ideal class

size for online courses. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(3), 531-541.

Tynan, B., Ryan, Y., & Lamont-Mills, A. (2015, Jan.). Examining workload models in online

and blended teaching. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(1), 5-15.

Udermann, B. (2015). Does Class Size Matter? Distance education report, 19(10), 37. US News

and World Report College Rankings (2016). Retrieved from

https://www.usnews.com/education/best-colleges/articles/ranking-criteria-and-weights

Walls, J.K. (2016). A theoretically grounded framework for integrating the scholarship of

teaching and learning. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 16(2), 39-

doi:10.14434/josotl.v16i2.19217

Watson, K., Handal, B., & Maher, M. (2016). The influence of class size upon numeracy and

literacy performance. Quality Assurance in Education, 24(4), 507-527.

Williams, S.S., Jaramillo, A., & Pesko, J.C. (2015). Improving depth of thinking in online

discussion boards. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 16(3), 45-66.

Xu, D., & Jaggars, S.S. (2014). Performance gaps between online and face-to-face courses:

Differences across types of students and academic subject areas. The Journal of Higher

Education, 85(5), 633-659.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24059/olj.v23i3.1534



Copyright (c) 2019 Susan H. Taft, Karen Kesten, Majeda M. El-Banna

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/