Raafat George Saadé, Dennis Kira


This study investigates perceived ease of use and overall computer/internet experience as emotional factors that affect e-learning. Results suggest that online learning systems design should address typical software interfaces so that students feel more comfortable using them.


Online learning,emotion,conation,affect,affective learning,mediators,technology acceptance model,perceived ease of us

Full Text:



Hammond, N.V. and Trapp, A. I. How Can the Web Support the Learning of Psychology? In C. R. Wolfe (Ed.), Learning and Teaching on the World Wide Web. Academic Press, New York, 153-169, 2001.

Jiang, M. and Ting, E. A Study of Factors Influencing Students’ Perceived Learning in a Web-based Course Environment. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications 6: 317-338,2000.

Cheung, W. and Huang, W. Proposing a Framework to Assess Internet Usage in University Education: An Empirical Investigation from a Student’s Perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology 36(2): 237-253, 2005.

Ross, J. L. An Exploratory Analysis of Post-secondary Student Achievement Comparing a Web-based and a Conventional Course Learning Environment. Dissertation-Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 61(5-A): 1809, 2000.

Hoskins, S.L. and van Hooff, J.G. Motivation and Ability: Which Students Use Online Learning and What Influence Does it Have on their Achievement? British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2): 177-192, 2005.

Colley, A. M., Gale, M. T. And Harris, T. A. Effects of Gender Role Identity and Experience on Computer Attitudes. Journal of Educational Computing Research 10(2): 129-137, 1994.

McIlroy, D., B. Bunting, et al. The Relation of Gender and Background Experience to Self-reported Computing Anxieties and Cognitions. Computers in Human Behavior 17: 21-33, 2001.

Harrison, A. W. and Rainer, Jr., R. K. An Examination of the Factor Structures and Concurrent Validities for the Computer Attitude Scale, the Computer Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Computer Self-Efficacy Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement 52: 735-745, 1992.

Loyd, B. H., Loyd, D. E. and Gressard, C. P. Gender and Computer Experience as Factors in the Computer Attitudes of Middle School Students. Journal of Early Adolescence 7(1): 13-19, 1987.

Conger, S., Loch, K. D., Helft, L. Ethics and Information Technology Use–a Factor-Analysis of Attitudes to Computer Use. Information Systems Journal 5(3): 161-183, 1995.

Todman, J. and Monaghan E. Qualitative Differences in Computer Experience, Computer Anxiety, and Students' Use of Computers: A Path Model. Computers in Human Behavior 10(4): 529-539, 1994.

Ayersman, D. J. and Reed, W. M. Effects of Learning Styles, Programming, and Gender on Computer Anxiety. Journal of Research on Computing in Education 28(2): 148-161, 1996.

Bradley, G. and Russell, G. Computer Experience, School Support, and Computer Anxiety. Educational Psychology 17(3): 25-28, 1997.

Mahar, D., Henderson, R. and Deane, F. The Effects of Computer Anxiety, State Anxiety, and Computer Experience on Users' Performance of Computer Based Tasks. Personality and Individual Differences 22(5): 683-692, 1997.

Taylor, S. and Todd, P. A. Understanding Information Technology Usage: A Test of Competing Models. Information Systems Research 6: 144-76, 1995.

Venkatesh, V. and Morris, M. G. Why Don’t Men Ever Stop to Ask for Directions? Gender, Social Influence, and Their Role in Technology Acceptance and Usage Behavior. MIS Quarterly 24(1): 115-139, Mar 2000.

Igbaria, M. and J. Iivari, J. The Effects of Self-efficacy on Computer Usage. OMEG International Journal of Management Science 23(6): 587-605, 1995.

Igbaria, M. and Chakrabarti, A. Computer Anxiety and Attitudes Towards Microcomputer Use. Behavior and Information Technology 9: 229-241, 1990.

Mathieson, K. Predicting User Intentions: Comparing the Technology Acceptance Model with the Theory of Planned Behavior. Information Systems Research 2: 173-91, 1991.

Thompson, L. R. Higgins, A. C. and Howell, M.J. Personal Computing: Toward a Conceptual Model of Utilization. MIS Quarterly 15(1): 125-143, 1991.

Venkatesh, V. and Davis, F.D. A Model of the Antecedents of Perceived Ease of Use: Development and test. Decision Sciences 27(3): 451-481, 1996.

Bajaj, A. and Nidumoli, S. A. A Feedback Model to Understand Information System Usage. Information & Management 33(4): 213-224, 1998.

Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980.

Davis, D. F., Bagozzi, P.R. and Warshaw, R. P. User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Models. Management science 35(8): 982-1003, 1989.

Igbaria, M. Tan, M. The Consequences of Information Technology Acceptance on Subsequent Individual Performance. Information and management 32(3): 113-121, 1997.

Adams, R. R. Nelson, R and Todd, A. P. Perceived Usefulness, Ease of Use, and Usage of Information Technology: A Replication. MIS Quarterly 16(2): 227-247, 1992.

Pedersen, P. and Nysveen, H. Usefulness and Self-Expressiveness: Extending TAM to Explain the Adoption of a Mobile Parking Services. In the proceeding of the 16th Beld eCommerce Conference, Bled, Slovenia, June 9-11, 2003.

McInerney, V., McInerney, D. M., and Sinclair, K. E. Student Teachers, Computer Anxiety, and Computer Experience. Journal of Educational Computing Research 11(1): 27-50, 1994.

Goss, M. W. (1996). Computer Anxiety and Computer Experience: A New Look at an Old Relationship. The Clearing House 69(5): 271-276, 1996.

Smith, B., Caputi, P., Crittenden, N., Jayasuriya, R and Rawstone, P. Computers in Human Behaviour 15(2): 227-242, Mar 1999.

Huitt, W.G. Systems model of human behaviour., 1996.

Tallon, A. Head and heart: Affection, cognition, volition as triune consciousness. New York: Fordham University, 1997.

Baumeister, R., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., and Tice, D. Ego Depletion: Is the Active Self a Limited Resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74(5): 1252-1265, 1998.

Emmons, R. Personal Strivings: An Approach to Personality and Subjective Well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51: 1058-1068 , 1986.

O’Regan, K. Emotion and E-learning. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 7(3): 78-92, 2003.

Martin, B. and Briggs, L. The affective and Cognitive Domains: Integration for Instruction and Research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Educational Technology Publications, 1986.

Frijda, N. Emotions are Functional Most of the Time, In Ekman, P. and Davidson, R. (Eds), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions, Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford, 112-122, 1994.

James, W. The Principles of Psychology, Encyclopedia Britannica, Chicago, 1952.

Shweder, R. You’re Not Sick, You’re Just in Love: Emotion as an Interpretive System. In: Ekman, P. and Davidson, R. (Eds.) The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions. New York/ Oxford, Oxford University Press, 32-44,1994.

McCombs, B. Unraveling Motivation. Journal of Experimental Education 60(1): 3-88, 1991.

Deci, L.E. and Ryan, M. R. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum 1985.

Bandura, A. Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1986.

Rayner, S. and Riding, S. Towards a Categorization of Cognitive Styles and Learning Styles. Educational Psychologist 17 (1-2): 5-27, 1997.

Goleman, D. Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ. New York: Bantam Books, 1995.

Cunningham, D. and Duffy, T. Constructivism: Implications for the Design and Delivery of Instruction. In D. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology. New York: Simon and Schuster MacMillan, 170-19, 1996.

Kay R. H. An Exploration of Theoretical and Practical Foundations for Assessing Attitudes Toward Computers: The Computer Attitude Measure (CAM). Computers in Human Behaviour 9: 371-386, 1993.

Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., and Warshaw, P. R. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to Use Computers in the Workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 22: 1111–1132, 1992.

Triandis, H.C. Values, Attitudes and Interpersonal Behavior. Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1979.

Arkkelin, D. Putting Prometheus' Feet to the Fire: Student Evaluations of Prometheus in Relation to their attitudes Towards and Experience with Computers, Computer Self-efficacy and Preferred Learning Style. Syllabus2003 Proceedings, 2003.

Smith, B., Caputi, P., Rawstorne, P. Differentiating computer experience and attitudes toward computers: An empirical investigation. Computers in Human Behavior 16: 59-81, 2000.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Harper-Row: NY, 1990.

Kort B., Reilly, R. and Picard R. An affective model of interplay between emotions and learning: reengineering educational pedagogy—building a learning companion. In T. Okamoto, R. Hartley, Kinshuk and J. P. Klus (Eds) Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technology: Issues, Achievements and Challenges. Madison,WI, IEEE Computer Society, 43–48, 2001.

Wentling, T.L, Waight, C., Strazzo, D., File, J., La Fleur, J. and Kanfer, A. The Future of e-Learning: A Corporate and an Academic Perspective, Knowledge and Learning Systems Group. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2000.

Triandis, H. C. Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values. Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press, 195-259, 1980.

Rowntree, D. Teaching Through Self-Instruction, New York: Nicholis Publishing Company, 1986.

Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L. and Cocking, R. R. How people Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1999.

Spiceland, J.D., Hawkins, C.P. The Impact on Learning of an Asynchronous Active Learning Course Format. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 6(1): 68-75, 2002.

Vygotsky, L. Mind in Society: The Development of the Higher Psychological Processes. The Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Originally published 1930, Oxford University Press, New York, 1978.

Picard, R. and Jonathan Klein, J. Computers that Recognise and Respond to User Emotion: Theoretical and Practical Implications. Interacting with Computers 14(2): 141-169, 2002.

Davis, D. F. A Technology Acceptance Model for Empirically Testing New End-User Information Systems: Theory and Results, Doctoral Dissertation, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1986.

Davis, D. F. Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly 13(3): 319-339, 1989.

Rosen, L. D., Sears, D. C., and Weil, M. M. Computerphobia. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 19(2): 167-179, 1987.

Compeau, D. R., Higgins, C. A., and Huff, S. Social Cognitive Theory and Individual Reactions to Computing Technology. A longitudinal study. MIS Quarterly 23(2): 145-158, 1999.

Chau, P.Y.K. An Empirical Assessment of a Modified Technology Acceptance model. Journal of

Management Information Systems 13(2): 85-204, 1996.

Lucas, H.C. and V.K. Spitler. Implementation in a World of Workstations and Networks. Information & Management 38( 2): 119-128, 2000.

Gefen, D. and Straub, D. W. Gender Difference in the Perception and Use of E-mail: An Extension to the Technology Acceptance Model. MIS Quarterly 21(4): 389-400, 1997.

Gefen, D., Karahanna, E. and Straub, D. W. Trust and TAM in Online Shopping: An Integrated Model. MIS Quarterly 27(1): 51-90, Mar 2003.

Gefen, D., Karahanna, E., and Straub, D. W. Inexperience and Experience with Online Stores: The importance of TAM and Trust. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 50(3): 1-15, Aug 2003.

Saadé, R. and Bahli, B. The impact of Cognitive Absorption on Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use in On-line Learning: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model. Information & Management 42: 317-327, 2005.

Venkatesh, V. and Davis, F.D. A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Field Studies. Management Science 46(2): 186-204, 2000.

Lederer, A., Maupin, D., Sena, M. and Zhuang, Y. The Tchnology Acceptance Model and the World Wide Web. Decision Support Systems 29(3): 269-282, 2000.

Venkatesh, V. Creation of favorable user perceptions: Exploring the role of intrinsic motivation. MIS Quarterly, 23: 239-260 (1999).

Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., and Black, W.C. Multivariate Data Analysis, 5th edition. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998.

Nunnally, J. C. Psychometric Theory, 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978.

Robinson, J. P, Shaver, P.R. and Wrightsman, L.S. Criteria for Scale, Selection and Evaluation. In Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, Academic Press, New York, 1991.

Baron, R. M. and Kenny, D. The Moderator-mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (6): 1173-1182, 1986.

Arch E.C. and Cummins D.E. Structured and Unstructured Exposure to Computers: Sex Differences in Attitude and Use Among College Students. Sex Roles 50 (5/6): 245-254, 1989.

Ertmer P.A., Evenbeck, E., Cennamo, K.S., and Lehman, J.D. Enhancing Self-Efficacy for Computer Technologies Through the Use of Positive Classroom Experiences. Educational Technology, Research and Development 42: 45-62, 1994.

Jones, T., and Clarke V.A. Diversity as a Determinant of Attitudes: A Possible Explanation of the Apparent Advantage of Single-sex Settings. Journal of Educational Computing Research 12: 51-64, 1995.

Loyd, B. H. and Gressard, C. The Effects of Sex, Age, and Computer Experience on Computer Attitudes. Paper presented at the Eastern Educational Research Association annual meeting, West Palm Beach, Florida, 1984.

Shashaani, L. Gender Differences in Computer Experience and its Influence on Computer Attitudes. Journal of Educational Computing Research 11(4): 347-367, 1994.

Williams S. W., Ogletree S. M., Woodburn, W., and Raffeld, P. Gender Roles, Computer Attitudes, and Dyadic Computer Interaction: Performance in College Students. Sex Roles 29 (7/8): 515-525, 1993.

Henderson, R., Deane, F.P. Barrelle, K. and Mahar, D. Computer Anxiety: Correlates, Norms and Problem Definition in Health Care and Banking Employees Using the Computer Attitude Scale. Interacting with computers 7: 181-193, 1995.

Bandagliacco J.M. Gender and Race in Computing Attitudes and Experiences. Social Science Computer Review 8(1): 42-63, 1990.

Burkes, M. Identifying and Relating Nurses’ Attitudes Toward Computer Use. Computers in Nursingn 9(5): 191-201, 1991.

Caputi, P., Jayasuriya, R., and Fares, J. The Development of a Measure of Attitudes Toward Computers in Nursing. In H. Hasan and N. Nicastri, HCI a light into the future: conference proceedings, 138-141. Australia: Computer Human Interaction Special Interest Group, 1995.

Hall, J. and Cooper, J. Gender, Experience and Attributions to Computers. Journal of Education and Computer Research 7(1): 51-60, 1991.

Pope-Davis, D., and Twing J.S. The Effects of Age, Gender and Experience on Measures of Attitude Regarding Computers. Computers in Human Behaviour 7: 333-339, 1991.