Anthony G. Picciano, Jeff Seaman


The research literature on online learning has grown significantly in the past decade. Many studies have been published that examine the extent, nature, policies, learning outcomes, and other issues associated with online instruction. While much of this literature focuses specifically on postsecondary education with approximately three million students presently enrolled in fully online courses [1], not as much has been published about students enrolled in fully online and blended courses in primary and secondary schools. This is one of the first studies to collect data on and to compare fully online and blended learning in K–12 schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of online learning in K–12 schools and to establish base data for more extensive future studies. Issues related to planning, operational difficulties, and online learning providers were also examined. This study does not necessarily answer all of the issues raised but hopefully will promote further discussion and study of them.


Online Learning,Distance Learning,Blended Learning,Distance Education,Asynchronous Learning,Primary Education,Secondary Education,K–12

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24059/olj.v11i3.1719