ESTIMATING FACULTY AND STUDENT WORKLOAD FOR INTERACTION IN ONLINE GRADUATE MUSIC COURSES

Barbara Payne McLain

Abstract


Research suggests that faculty perceive greater workload for online teaching. These perceptions have little quantitative support. This study utilized seven online graduate courses, over a three year period to estimate faculty and student workload for interaction via online discussions and electronic mail using average reading and typing speeds. Weekly faculty workload estimates for interaction did not exceed normal expectations for faculty “office hours” for six of the seven courses. Perceptions of excessive workload for communication may be better explained by the dynamics of online interaction found in this study. Online students attempted to contact their instructors, twenty-four hours per day, seven days per week, at least every fourteen hours. Further research is needed to establish the time needed for FTF teaching interaction and to validate actual typing and reading speeds for more accurate estimates of the time needed for online course interaction.


Keywords


Faculty Workload,Interaction,Workload Dynamics,Online Course,Distance Education,Internet Course,Music.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Carnevale, D. Professors seek compensation for online courses. The Chronicle of Higher Education August 13, 2004. Online: http://chronicle.com/free/v50/i49/49a02701.html.

Schifter, C. Compensation models in distance education. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 3(1): Spring, 2000. Online: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring71/schifter71.html.

Lammers, W. and J. Murphy. A profile of teaching techniques used in the university classroom. Active Learning in Higher Education 3(1): 54–67, 2002.

Thielens, W. The disciplines and undergraduate lecturing. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, D.C., 1987.

Barab, S., M. Thomas, and H. Merrill. Online learning: From information dissemination to fostering collaboration. Journal of Interactive Learning Research 12(1): 105–133, 2001.

Borthick, A. & D. Jones. The motivation for collaborative discovery learning online and its application in an information systems assurance course. Issues in Accounting Education 15(2): 181–210, 2000.

Carswell, L., P. Thomas, M. Petre, B. Price, and M. Richards. Distance education via the internet: The student experience. British Journal of Educational Technology 31(1): 29–46, 2000.

French, D. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation: Innovative use of internet based collaboration. Paper presented at the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 1999.

Freeman, M. Flexibility in access, interaction and assessment: The case for web-based teaching programs. Australian Journal of Educational Technology 13(1): 23–39, 1997.

Lesh, S., J. Guffey, and L. Rampp. Changes in Student Attitudes Regarding a Web-Based Health Profession Course. United States Research Reports HE032863. Arkansas: Higher Education, 2000.

Jiang, M. and E. Ting. A study of students’ perceived learning in a web-based online environment. Paper presented at the World Conference of the WWW and the Internet, Honolulu, HI, 1999.

Tello, S. Analysis of the relationship between instructional interaction and student persistence in online education. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. University of Massachusetts Lowell, 2002.

Wu, D. & S. Hiltz. Online discussions and perceived learning. Paper presented at the Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Tampa, Florida, 2003.

Prammanee, N. Understanding participation in online courses: A case study of perceptions of online interaction: 14, 2004. Online: http://it.coe.uga.edu/itforum/paper68/paper68.html.

Lazarus, B. Teaching courses online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 7(3): 47–54, 2003.

Borthick, A. and D. Jones. The motivation for collaborative discovery learning online and its application in an information systems assurance course. Issues in Accounting Education 15(2): 181–210, 2000.

Mason, R. Analyzing computer conferencing interactions. International Journal of Computers in Adult Education and Training 2(3): 161–173, 1991.

Mouza, C., D. Kaplan, and I. Espinet. A web-based model for online collaboration between distance learning and campus students. Paper presented at the WebNet 2000 World Conference on the WWW and Internet, San Antonio, Texas, 2000.

Patterson, N. An evaluation of graduate class interaction in face-to-face and asynchronous computer groupware experiences: A collective case study. Paper presented at the Association for Higher Education Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 1999.

Thornam, C. and S. Phillips. Interactivity in online and face-to-face sections of a graduate nursing course. TechTrends 45(1): 34, 2001.

Thompson, J., F. Nay, and B. Malone. Utilizing the internet to supplement classroom instruction: An analysis of longitudinal data. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-Western Education Research Association, Chicago, IL, 2000.

Helford, P. and R. Lei. Using the web to deliver and enhance classes: Two case studies. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems International Conference, Espoo, Finland, 1999.

Johnson, S., S. Aragon, N. Shaik, and N. Palma-Rivas. Comparative analysis of online vs. face-to-face instruction. Paper presented at the World Conference of the WWW and the Internet, Orlando, Florida, 1999.

Cook, R. & S. Rule. When face to fact won’t work: Internet-based focus groups. Unpublished paper presented at the Growing Partnerships for Rural Special Education Conference, San Diego, California, 2001.

Gaddis, B., H. Naperikowski, N. Guzman, and R. Muth. A comparison of collaborative learning and audience awareness in two computer-mediated writing environments. Paper presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Denver, Colorado, 2000.

Rodrigues, S. Evaluation of an online masters course in science teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching 25(3): 263–270, 1999.

Hiltz, S. Collaborative learning in asynchronous learning networks: Building learning communities. Paper presented at the World Conference of the WWW and the Internet, Orlando, Florida, 1998.

Hilsop, G. Does teaching online take more time? Paper presented at the Frontiers of Education Conference, Reno, NV, 2001.

Ostrach, R. Typing speed: How fast is average, 1997. Online: http://www.fivestarstaff.com /publication_typing.htm.

Legge, G., C. Madison, and J. Mansfield. Measuring Braille reading speed with the MNREAD test. Visual Impairment Research (1): 131–145, 1999.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24059/olj.v9i3.1784



Copyright (c) 2019 Barbara Payne McLain