EMOTION AND E-LEARNING

Kerry O’Regan

Abstract


Traditionally, emotion and cognition have been viewed as polar opposites and this view has been incorporated into theories of learning. One reason for this may be a lack of clarity in defining emotion. In fact there are other perspectives on how emotion and cognition, emotion and learning, are related. These considerations emerge with renewed vigor with the move to online education. The
author interviewed eleven students studying online. These students identified emotions which were critical to their online learning. Evidence from the literature and from the interviews positions emotion as central and essential to the teaching/ learning process.


Keywords


Learning Effectiveness,Emotion,Student Satisfaction

Full Text:

PDF

References


Dirkx, J., The power of feelings: Emotion, imagination, and the construction of meaning in adult learning, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, Vol.89, pp 63-72, Spring, 2001.

Barbalet, J., Emotion, Social Theory and Social Structure, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998.

Frijda, N., Manstead, A. & Bem, S. The influence of emotions on beliefs. In: Frijda, N., Manstead, A. & Bem, S., Emotions and Beliefs: How Feelings Influence Thoughts, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1-9, 2000.

Ferro, T., The influence of affective processing in education and training, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, Vol. 59, pp 25-33, 1995.

Martinez, M., Key design considerations for personalized learning on the Web, Educational Technology and Society, Vol. 4, No.1, pp 26–40, 2001.

Boud, D., Cohen, R. & Walker, D., Introduction: Understanding learning from experience. In: Boud, D., Cohen, R. & Walker, D., Using Experience for Learning, SRHE & Open University Press, Buckingham, 1-18, 1993.

Martin, B. & Briggs, L., The Affective and Cognitive Domains: Integration for Instruction and Research, Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, 1986.

Denzin, N., On Understanding Emotion, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1984.

Rolls, E., The Brain and Emotion, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999.

LeDoux, J., The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life, Phoenix, London, 1999.

Hinton, A., Introduction: Developing a biocultural approach to the emotions. In: Hinton, A., Biocultural Approaches to the Emotions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1-38, 1999.

Darwin, C., The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1872/1965.

Frijda, N., Emotions are functional, most of the time, In: Ekman, P., & Davidson, R. (Eds.), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions, Oxford University Press, New York/ Oxford, 112-122, 1994.

Ekman, P., All emotions are basic time. In: Ekman, P. & Davidson, R. (Eds.). The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions, Oxford University Press, New York/ Oxford, 15-19, 1994.

Evans, P., Motivation and Emotion, Routledge, London & New York, 1989.

Lerner, J. & Keltner, D., Beyond valence: Toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgment and choice, Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp 473–503, 2000.

James, W., The Principles of Psychology, Encyclopedia Britannica, Chicago, 1891/1952.

Shweder, R., ‘you’re not sick, you’re just in love’: Emotion as an interpretative system. In: Ekman, P. & Davidson, R. (Eds.), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions, Oxford University Press, New York/ Oxford, 32-44, 1994.

Worthman, C., Emotions: You can feel the difference. In: Hinton, A. Biocultural Approaches to the Emotions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 41-74, 1999.

Goleman, D., Emotional Intelligence, Bantam Books, New York, 1995.

Averill, J., A constructionist view of emotion. In Plutchik, R. & Kellerman, H. (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, Research and Experience, Vol.1, Theories of Emotion. Academic Press, New York, pp 305-337, 1980.

Damasio, A., Descartes’s Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain, Papermac, London, 1996.

Bloom, B. (Ed.), Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals: Handbook I, Cognitive Domain. Longmans, Green, New York / Toronto, 1956.

Krathwohl, D., Bloom, B., & Masia, B., Taxonomy of educational objectives. Handbook II: Affective Domain. David McKay, New York, 1956.

McLeod, D., Research on affect and Mathematics learning in the JRME: 1970 to the present, Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp 637–647, 1994.

Shelton, C., Portraits in emotional awareness. Educational Leadership, pp 330 –32, September, 2000.

Postle, G., Putting the heart back into learning. In: Boud, D., Cohen, R. & Walker, D. (Eds.), Using Experience for Learning, SRHE & Open University Press, Buckingham, 33-45, 1993.

Gardner, H., Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Basic Books, New York, 1983.

LaViolette, P., Teaching with feeling in mind, On the Beam, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1986. http://www.etheric.com/LaViolette/Feelingtones.html

Palombo Weiss, R., Emotion and learning, Training and Development, Vol. 54, No. 11, pp 44–48, 2000.

Clore, G. & Gasper, K., Feeling is believing: Some affective influences on belief. In Frijda, N., Manstead, A. & Bem, S. (Eds.) Emotions and Beliefs: How Feelings Influence Thoughts, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1-9, 2000.

Stock, B., Getting to the heart of performance. Performance Improvement, Vol. 35, No. 8, pp 6-13, 1996.

Greenspan, S., The Growth of the Mind and the Endangered Origins of Intelligence, Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1997.

Brandt, R., On teaching brains to think: A conversation with Robert Sylwester. Educational Leadership, pp 72-75, April, 2000.

Sylwester, R., Unconscious emotions, conscious feelings. Educational Leadership, Vol. 58, No.3, pp 20–24, 2000.

Salzberger-Wittenberg, I., Henry, G. & Osborne, E., The Emotional Experience of Learning and Teaching, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1983.

Boyle, G., Effects on academic learning of manipulating emotional states and motivational dynamics. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 53, pp 347-357, 1983.

Symonds, W., Giving it the old online try. Business Week, Issue 3760, 3 December, 2001.

Wong, A., Cyberself: Identity, language and stylization on the Internet. In: Gibbs, D. & Krause, K. (Eds.) Cyberlines: Languages and Cultures of the Internet, James Nicholas, Albert Park, 175-206, 2000.

Campbell-Gibson, C., The ultimate disorienting dilemma: The online learning community. In: Evans, T. & Nation, D. (Eds.), Changing University Teaching: Reflections on Creating Educational Technologies, Kogan Page, London, 2000.

Russell, T., Technology wars: Winners and losers, Educom Review, Vol 23, No. 2, 1997.

Cookson, P., Implications of internet technologies for higher education: North American perspectives, Open Learning, Vol.15, No.1, pp 71-81, 2000.

Kort, B., Reilly, R. & Picard, R., External representation of learning process and domain knowledge: Affective state as a determinate of its structure and function. Paper presented at the 10th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, San Antonio, Texas, 2001. http://affect.media.mit.edu/AC_research/lc/AI-ED.html

Schaller, D., Allison-Bunnell, S., Borun, M. & Chambers, M., How do you like to learn? Comparing user preferences and visit length of educational web sites. Paper presented at the Museums and the Web Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, 2002. http://www.eduweb.com/likelearn.html.

Wegerif, R., The social dimension of asynchronous learning networks. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1998. http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v2n1/v2n1_wegerif.asp

Ng, K-C., Using e-mail to foster collaboration in distance education. Open Learning, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp 191–200, 2001.

Hara, N. & Kling, R., Students’ distress with a Web-based distance education course: An ethnographic study of participants’ experiences, Center for Social Informatics, Indiana University, Working paper, 2000. http://www.slis.indiana.edu/CSI/wp00-01.html

Bradley, J., Methodological issues and practices in qualitative research, The Library Quarterly, Vol. 63, No. 4, pp 431-449.

Ingleton, C., Gender and learning: Does emotion make a difference? Higher Education, Vol 30, pp 323-335, 1995.

Ingleton, C. & O’Regan, K., Recounting mathematical experiences: Exploring the development of confidence in mathematics. Paper presented at AARE (Australasian Association for Research in Education) Conference, Adelaide, December 1998.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24059/olj.v7i3.1847



Copyright (c) 2019 Kerry O’Regan