Development and Validation of the Purdue Global Online Teaching Effectiveness Scale

Elizabeth Reyes-Fournier, Edward J. Cumella, Michelle March, Jennifer Pedersen, Gabrielle Blackman


The currently available measures of online teaching effectiveness (OTE) have several flaws, including a lack of psychometric rigor, high costs, and reliance on the construct of traditional on-the-ground teaching effectiveness as opposed to the unique features of OTE (Blackman, Pedersen, March, Reyes-Fournier, & Cumella, 2019). Therefore, the present research sought to establish a psychometrically sound framework for OTE and develop and validate a measure based on this clearly-defined construct. The authors developed pilot questions for the new measure based on a comprehensive review of the OTE literature and their many years of experience as online instructors. Students enrolled in exclusively online coursework and programs at Purdue University Global, N = 213, completed the survey, rating the effectiveness of their instructors. Exploratory Factor Analysis produced four clear OTE factors: Presence, Expertise, Engagement, and Facilitation. The resulting measure demonstrated good internal consistency and high correlations with an established OTE measure; good test-retest reliability; and predictive validity in relation to student achievement. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed a good fit of the data and yielded a final 12-item OTE measure. Further refinement and validation of the measure are recommended, particularly with students in other universities, and future research options are discussed.

Keywords: online teaching effectiveness, instructor effectiveness, distance learning, student evaluations, asynchronous learning.


online teaching effectiveness, instructor effectiveness, distance learning, student evaluations, asynchronous learning.

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