Procrastination and Delayed Assignment Submissions: Student and Faculty Perceptions of Late Point Policy and Grace

Beverly Santelli, Sarah N Robertson, Elizabeth K. Larson, Samia Humphrey


An exploratory study using a questionnaire was conducted among 597 full-time enrolled online students and 53 full-time online faculty teaching at a private university in the Southwest. Results are presented in frequency tables and participant feedback to compare differences and similarities of instructor and student perceptions of reasons for late assignment submission, late point policy, and leniency. Some differences in perception between student and faculty participants are noted. Further inquiry into the impact late assignment submissions, late point policies and instructor leniency have on student success rates, satisfaction, and persistence is warranted.


Late point policy, late submissions, faculty grace, procrastination, homework extension, assignment submission patterns, perception on leniency

Full Text:



Arasaratnam-Smith, L. A., & Northcote, M. (2017). Community in online higher education: Challenges and opportunities. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 15(2), 188-198. Retrieved from

Bowers, J., & Kumar, P. (2015). Students' perceptions of teaching and social presence: A comparative analysis of face-to-face and online learning environments. International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies (IJWLTT), 10(1), 27-44. Retrieved from

Boisvert, D., Garcia, W., Giersch, J., Strickland, J., & Whitaker, B.E. (2015). Late work and late adds. Students’ Pathways to Success: A Faculty Guide, 65-72. Retrieved from

Corkin, D. M., Shirley, L. Y., Wolters, C. A., & Wiesner, M. (2014). The role of the college classroom climate on academic procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 32, 294-303. Retrieved from

Dyer, T., Aroz, J., & Larson, E. (2018). Proximity in the online classroom: Engagement, relationships, and personalization. Journal of Instructional Research, 7, 108-118. Retrieved from

Dukewich, K. R., & Wood, S. (2016). “Can I have a grade bump?” the contextual variables and ethical ideologies that inform everyday dilemmas in teaching. Collected Essays on Learning and Teaching, 9, 97–110. Retrieved from

Dumais, S. A., Rizzuto, T. E., Cleary, J., & Dowden, L. (2013). Stressors and supports for adult online learners: Comparing first-and continuing-generation college students. American Journal of Distance Education, 27(2), 100–110. doi: 10.1080/08923647.2013.783265. Retrieved from

Falkner, N. J., & Falkner, K. E. (2012, September). A fast measure for identifying at-risk students in computer science. In Proceedings of the ninth annual international conference on International computing education research (pp. 55-62). ACM. Retrieved from

Field, J. (2015). Improving student performance using nudge analytics. International Educational Data Mining Society. Retrieved from

Jones, I. S., & Blankenship, D. C. (2019). The effect of procrastination on academic performance of online students at a Hispanic serving institution. Journal of Business Diversity, 19(2), 10–15. Retrieved from

Kaftan, O. J., & Freund, A. M. (2019). A motivational perspective on academic procrastination: Goal focus affects how students perceive activities while procrastinating. Motivation Science, 5(2), 135–156. Retrieved from

Kara, M., Erdogdu, F., Kokoç, M., & Cagiltay, K. (2019). Challenges faced by adult learners in online distance education: A literature review. Open Praxis, 11(1), 5–22. Retrieved from

Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26–33. Retrieved from

Klingsieck, K. B., Fries, S., Horz, C., & Hofer, M. (2012). Procrastination in a distance university setting. Distance Education, 33(3), 295–310. Retrieved from

Kostal, J. W., Kuncel, N. R., & Sackett, P. R. (2016). Grade inflation marches on: Grade increases from the 1990s to 2000s. Educational Measurement: Issues & Practice, 35(1), 11–20. Retrieved from

Kuo, Y.-C., & Belland, B. R. (2016). An exploratory study of adult learners’ perceptions of online learning: Minority students in continuing education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(4), 661–680. Retrieved from

Lin, X. (2016). Barriers and challenges of female adult students enrolled in higher education: A literature review. Higher Education Studies, 6(2), 119–126. Retrieved from

Litchfield, J. M., & Matteis, M. (2016). Faculty experiences with technology, millennials versus baby boomers. Online Journal of Nursing Informatics, 20(1), 6–1. Retrieved from

McElroy, B. W., & Lubich, B. (2013). Predictors of course outcomes: early indicators of delay in online classrooms. Distance Education, 34(1), 84–96. Retrieved from

Nordby, K., Klingsieck, K., & Svartdal, F. (2017). Do procrastination-friendly environments make students delay unnecessarily? Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 20(3), 491–512. Retrieved from

Osam, E. K., Bergman, M., & Cumberland, D. M. (2017). An integrative literature review on the barriers impacting adult learners’ return to college. Adult Learning, (2), 54. Retrieved from

Patton, M. A. (2000). The importance of being flexible with assignment deadlines. Higher Education in Europe, 25(3), 417–423.. Retrieved from

Patrzek, J., Grunschel, C., & Fries, S. (2012). Academic procrastination: The perspective of university counsellors. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 34(3), 185-201. Retrieved from

Ruth, S. (2018). Faculty opposition to online learning: Challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Technology in Teaching & Learning, 14(1), 12–24. Retrieved from

Tyler, J., Peveler, M., & Cutler, B. (2017). A flexible late day policy reduces stress and improves learning. The 2017 ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium. Retrieved from

Yilmaz, M. B. (2017). The relation between academic procrastination of university students and their assignment and exam performances: The situation in distance and face-to-face learning environments. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5(9), 146–157. Retrieved from

You, J. W. (n.d.). Examining the effect of academic procrastination on achievement using LMS data in e-learning. Educational Technology & Society, 18(3), 64–74. Retrieved from


Copyright (c) 2020 Beverly Santelli, Sarah N Robertson, Elizabeth K. Larson, Samia Humphrey

License URL: