Jordanian University Students’ Views on Emergency Online Learning During COVID-19

Saleh Al-Salman, Ahmad S Haider


The present study investigates the influence of digital technology, instructional and assessment quality, economic status and psychological state, and course type on Jordanian university students’ attitudes towards online learning during the COVID-19 emergency transition to online learning. A survey of 4,037 undergraduate students representing four Jordanian public and private universities revealed that personal challenges (such as economic and psychological stress) decreased students’ willingness to learn online in the future, while the quality of the online experience (including instructional and assessment quality) improved their attitudes towards learning online in the future. Students also believed that Arts & Humanities courses were better suited for online teaching/learning than Sciences courses, a difference that persisted after controlling for personal challenges and the quality of the online learning experience.


COVID-19, higher education, online learning, Jordan, attitudes, university students

Full Text:



Abbad, M. M., Morris, D., & De Nahlik, C. (2009). Looking under the bonnet: Factors affecting student adoption of e-learning systems in Jordan. International Review of Research in Open Distributed Learning, 10(2), 10–20.

Al-Adwan, A., & Smedley, J. (2012). Implementing e-learning in the Jordanian Higher Education System: Factors affecting impact. International Journal of Education Development using ICT, 8(1).

Al-Adwan, A. S., Al-Madadha, A., & Zvirzdinaite, Z. (2018). Modeling students’ readiness to adopt mobile learning in higher education: An empirical study. International Review of Research in Open Distributed Learning, 19(1), 220-241.

Al-Khasawneh, A., & Obeidallah, R. (2015). Factors contributing to e-learning success: A case study in the Hashemite University. International Journal of Information Communication Technology Education, 11(3), 30-38.

Al-Shboul, M., & Alsmadi, I. (2010). Challenges of utilizing e-learning systems in public universities in Jordan. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 5(2), 4-10.

Al-Shboul, M., Rababah, O., Al-Saideh, M., Betawi, I., & Jabbar, S. (2013). A vision to improve e-Learning at the University of Jordan. World Applied Sciences Journal, 21(6), 902-914.

Alkhawaja, M. I., & Abd Halim, M. S. B. (2019). Challenges of E-Learning System Adoption in Jordan Higher Education. International Journal of Academic Research in Business Social Sciences, 9(9), 487-494.

Almarabeh, T. (2014). Students' Perceptions of E-Learning at the University of Jordan. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 9(3), 31-35.

Almarabeh, T., Mohammad, H., Yousef, R., & Majdalawi, Y. K. (2014). The University of Jordan e-learning platform: State, students’ acceptance and challenges. Journal of Software Engineering Applications, 7(12), 999.

Badran, A. (2014). New trends in higher education in Jordan 2014. Education, Economic and Development. 4th Arab-Turkish Congress of Social Sciences. Arab Thought Forum. Amman-Jordan,

Bolliger, D. U., & Martin, F. (2018). Instructor and student perceptions of online student engagement strategies. Distance Education, 39(4), 568-583.

Burgess, S., & Sievertsen, H. H. (2020). Schools, skills, and learning: The impact of COVID-19 on education. VoxEu. org, 1.

Cadloff, E. (2020). The big transition begins as faculty switch to online learning in response to COVID-19. University Affairs.

Canals, L., & Al-Rawashdeh, A. (2019). Teacher training and teachers’ attitudes towards educational technology in the deployment of online English language courses in Jordan. 32(7), 639-664.

Cerny, B. A., & Kaiser, H. F. (1977). A study of a measure of sampling adequacy for factor-analytic correlation matrices. Multivariate behavioral research, 12(1), 43-47.

Clinefelter, D. L., & Aslanian, C. B. (2015). Online college students 2015: Comprehensive data on demands and preferences. The Learning House, Inc.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334.

Dziuban, C. D., Picciano, A. G., Graham, C. R., & Moskal, P. D. (2015). Conducting research in online and blended learning environments: New pedagogical frontiers. Routledge.

El-Bahsh, R., & Daoud, M. (2016). Evaluating the use of Moodle to achieve effective and interactive learning: A case study at the German Jordanian University. Proceedings of the 35th annual IEEE international conference on computer communications,

Eltahir, M. E. (2014). Challenges and Future of E-Learning in the Arab World. Conference: 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain.

German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). (2020). COVID-19 Impact on International Higher Education: Studies & Forecasts.

Haider, A. S., & Al-Salman, S. (2020). Dataset of Jordanian University Students’ Psychological Health Impacted by Using E-learning Tools during COVID-19. Data in Brief, 32.

Hassan, E. (2008). Saudi Arabia’s eLearning industry to touch $125 m in 2008. AME Info website.

Hillier, M. (2018). Bridging the digital divide with off-line e-learning. Distance Education, 39(1), 110-121.

Human Rights Watch. (1999). The Internet In the Middle East and North Africa: A Cautious Start.

International Association of Universities. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on higher education worldwide Resources for Higher Education Institutions.

Jaggars, S., & Bailey, T. R. (2010). Effectiveness of fully online courses for college students: Response to a Department of Education meta-analysis.

Jaggars, S. S. (2012). Beyond flexibility: Why students choose online and face-to-face courses in community college. American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Vancouver, Canada.

Jaggars, S. S., & Bailey, T. R. (2010). Effectiveness of fully online courses for college students: Response to a Department of Education meta-analysis.

Kebritchi, M., Lipschuetz, A., & Santiague, L. (2017). Issues and challenges for teaching successful online courses in higher education: A literature review. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 46(1), 4-29.

Kentnor, H. E. (2015). Distance education and the evolution of online learning in the United States. Curriculum teaching dialogue, 17(1), 21-34.

Khasawneh, M., & Yaseen, A. B. (2017). Critical success factors for e-learning satisfaction, Jordanian Universities’ experience. Journal of Business & Management, 5(1), 56-69.

Laher, S. (2010). Using exploratory factor analysis in personality research: Best-practice recommendations. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36(1), 1-7.

Lederman, D. (2018). Who is studying online (and where) (Inside Higher Ed, Issue.

Liaw, S.-S., Huang, H.-M., & Chen, G.-D. (2007). Surveying instructor and learner attitudes toward e-learning. Computers Education, 49(4), 1066-1080.

Majadlawi, Y., Almarabeh, T., & Mohammad, H. (2014). Factors affecting students’ usage of learning management system at The University of Jordan. Life Science Journal, 11(6), 666-671.

Manly, B. F., & Alberto, J. A. N. (2016). Multivariate statistical methods: a primer. Chapman and Hall/CRC.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory: 2d Ed. McGraw-Hill.

Olaimat, A. N., Aolymat, I., Shahbaz, H. M., & Holley, R. A. (2020). Knowledge and Information Sources About COVID-19 Among University Students in Jordan: A Cross-Sectional Study. Frontiers in Public Health, 8(254).

Ozkan, S., & Koseler, R. (2009). Multi-dimensional students’ evaluation of e-learning systems in the higher education context: An empirical investigation. Computers Education, 53(4), 1285-1296.

Palvia, S., Aeron, P., Gupta, P., Mahapatra, D., Parida, R., Rosner, R., & Sindhi, S. (2018). Online education: Worldwide status, challenges, trends, and implications. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 21(4), 233-241.

Roach, V., & Lemasters, L. (2006). Satisfaction with online learning: A comparative descriptive study. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 5(3), 317-332.

Selim, H. M. (2007). Critical success factors for e-learning acceptance: Confirmatory factor models. Computers Education, 49(2), 396-413.

Sikhan, K. (2013). Low-income students six times more likely to drop out of high school. World Socialist website.

UNESCO. (2020). Education: From disruption to recovery. COVID-19: Global Education Coalition.

Upoalkpajor, J.-L. N., & Upoalkpajor, C. B. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on Education in Ghana. Asian Journal of Education Social Studies, 9(1), 23-33.

Wimpenny, K., Adefila, A., & DeWinter, A. (2018). Jordan Opportunity for Virtual Innovative Teaching and Learning: A Needs Analysis Report Contextualising the State of the Art in International Online Teaching and Learning, with Particular Attention to the Jordanian Case. Coventry University.

Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2013). Adaptability to online learning: Differences across types of students and academic subject areas. CCRC Working Paper No. 54, 1-26.


Copyright (c) 2021 Saleh Al-Salman, Ahmad S Haider

License URL: