From Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) to Sustained Remote Teaching (SRT): A comparative semester analysis of exchange students’ experiences and perceptions of learning online during COVID-19


  • William H. Stewart Hankuk University of Foreign Studies
  • Youngkyun Baek Boise State University
  • Patrick R. Lowenthal Boise State University



Emergency remote teaching, exchange students, online learning, remote learning,


The COVID-19 pandemic caused universities worldwide to close campuses, forcing millions of teachers and students to resort to Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) and learning. Though necessary, the sudden move to remote delivery marked a significant departure from the standards and norms in distance education. In Korea, the pandemic coincided with the start of the 2020 academic year. Though ERT was new and unplanned during the first semester of the year, it became Sustained Remote Teaching (SRT) in the second. Through the lens of performance improvement theory, we sought to determine if students’ experiences and perceptions with learning remotely via SRT would change over time as a result of institutional preparedness and faculty support/experience. In total, 140 (Spring) and 93 (Fall) exchange students rated their perceptions of Teaching and Learning Processes, Student Support, and Course Structure with their ERT/SRT learning experiences via an electronic survey. An independent-samples one-way ANOVA indicated several statistically significant benchmarks, though results are interpreted as minor real world improvement. Implications for ERT/SRT policy and future research in the context of specific student groups are discussed.

Author Biographies

William H. Stewart, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies

Office of International Admissions and Management

Inbound Exchange Student Manager

Hankuk University of Foreign Studies

Youngkyun Baek, Boise State University

College of Education: Department of Educational Technology

Patrick R. Lowenthal, Boise State University

College of Education: Department of Educational Technology


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Empirical Studies