Culturally Responsive Teaching in an Undergraduate Online General Education Course

Barbara Schirmer, Alison Lockman

Abstract


While inclusive pedagogies such as culturally responsive teaching may be common in face-to-face learning, there is little published research regarding culturally responsive teaching and learning in higher education online settings. It is not known whether faculty members employ culturally responsive teaching strategies or what types of strategies they use in online courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether online faculty members practice culturally responsive teaching and to explore the characteristics of culturally responsive teaching that are reflected in the responses of 12 instructors in a fully online undergraduate general education course required in the first few terms of enrollment. Qualitative methodology was utilized, involving deductive and inductive coding methods of analysis. Data were coded deductively based on four major categories of cultural competence: sociopolitical/cultural consciousness, community of learners, and high academic expectations. Data were coded inductively for culturally nonresponsive interactions. Findings from deductive analysis revealed partial use of culturally responsive teaching strategies in online classrooms. Results for inductive analysis showed themes of nondifferentiated responses, missed opportunities for addressing linguistic or cultural differences, and lack of encouragement for collaboration or sense of community. These findings indicate a need for further research in culturally responsive teaching in online learning as well as faculty professional development that focuses on culturally responsive teaching.

 


Keywords


culturally responsive teaching, online instruction, college teaching

Full Text:

PDF

References


Authors. (2020).

Al-Dheleai, Y. M., & Tasir, A. (2017). Using Facebook for the purpose of students’ interactions and its correlation with students’ academic performance. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 16, 170-178.

Almeda, M. V., Zuech, J., Baker, R. S., Utz, G., Higgins, G., & Reynolds, R. (2018). Comparing the factors that predict completion and grades among for-credit and open/MOOC students in online learning. Online Learning Journal, 22, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v22i1.1060

Alsadoon, E. (2018). The impact of social presence on learners’ satisfaction in mobile learning. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 17, 226-233.

Athens, W. (2018). Perceptions of the persistent: Engagement and learning community in underrepresented populations. Online Learning, 22, 27-58. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v22i2.1368

Aydin, I. E., & Gumus, S. (2016). Sense of classroom community and team development process in online learning. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 17(1), 60-77. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.09900

Bonafini, F. C., Chae, C., Park, E., & Jablokow, K. W. (2017). How much does student engagement with videos and forums in a MOOC affect their achievement? Online Learning, 21, 223-240. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v21i4.1270

Chen, B., Bastedo, K., & Howard, W. (2018). Exploring design elements for online STEM courses: Active learning, engagement & assessment design. Online Learning, 22, 59-75. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v22i2.1369

Chen, D., & Yang, X. (2017). Improving active classroom participation of ESL students: Applying culturally responsive teaching strategies. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 7(1), 79-86. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0701.10

Cochran, J. D., Campbell, S. M., Baker, H. M., & Leeds, E. M. (2014). The role of student characteristics in predicting retention in online courses. Research in Higher Education, 55, 27-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-013-9305-8

Cole, A. W., Nicolini, K. M., Anderson, C., Bunton, T., Cherney, M. R., Fisher, V. C., Draeger, R., Featherston, M., Motel, L., Peck, B., & Allen, M. (2017). Student predisposition to instructor feedback and perceptions of teaching presence predict motivation toward online courses. Online Learning, 21, 245-262. https://doi.org/i:10.24059/olj.v21i4.966

Costley, J., & Lange, C. (2016). The relationship between social presence and critical thinking: Results from learner discourse in an asynchronous learning environment. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 15, 89-108. https://doi.org/10.28945/3418

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixedmethods approaches (5th ed.). Sage.

Cutsinger, M. M., Wall, T. J., & Tapps, T. (2018). Differences of instructor presence levels in predominately online versus predominantly not online courses within the community college setting. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 21(2). Retrieved from https://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/summer212/cutsinger_wall_tapps212.html

Gameel, B. G. (2017). Learner satisfaction with massive open online courses. The American Journal of Distance Education, 31, 98-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2017.1300462

Gay, G. (2002). Culturally responsive teaching in special education for ethnically diverse students: Setting the stage. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 15(6), 613-629. https://doi.org/10.1080/0951839022000014349

Gay, G. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice (3rd ed.). Teachers College.

Han, H. S., Vomvoridi-Ivanović, E., Jacobs, J., Karanxha, Z., Lypka, A., Topdemir, C., & Feldman, A. (2014). Culturally responsive pedagogy in higher education: A collaborative self-study. Studying Teacher Education, 10(3), 290-312. https://doi.org/10.1080/17425964.2014.958072

Heitner, K. L., & Jennings, M. (2016). Culturally responsive teaching knowledge and practices of online faculty. Online Learning, 20(4), 54-78. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v20i4.1043.

Hoey, R. (2017). Examining the characteristics and content of instructor discussion interaction upon student outcomes in an online course. Online Learning, 21, 263-281. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v21i4.1075

Holgate, H. A. (2016). Development and initial validation of a culturally responsive classroom climate scale. Open Access Theses, 855. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/open_access_theses/855

Hsiao, Y-J. (2015). The Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparation Scale: An exploratory study. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 8(4), 241-350. https://doi.org/10.19030/cier.v8i4.9432

James, S., Swan, K., & Daston, C. (2016). Retention, progression, and the taking of online courses. Online Learning, 20(2).

Jou, M., Lin, YT., & Wu, D-W. (2016). Effect of a blended learning environment on student critical thinking and knowledge transformation. Interactive Learning Environments, 24, 1131-1147. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2014.961485

Kuo, Y-C. (2014). Accelerated online learning: Perceptions of interactions and learning outcomes among African American students. The American Journal of Distance Education, 28, 241-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2014.959334

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465-491. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312032003465

Liu, C-J., & Yang, S. C. (2014). Using the community of inquiry model to investigate students’ knowledge construction in asynchronous online discussions. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 51, 327-354. https://doi.org/10.2190/EC.51.3.d

Maddrell, J. A., Morrison, G. R., & Watson, G. S. (2017). Presence and learning in a community of inquiry. Distance Education, 38, 245-258. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2017.1322062

Malo-Juvera, V., Correll, P., & Cantrell, S. (2018). A mixed methods investigation of teachers' self-efficacy for culturally responsive instruction. Teacher and Teacher Education, 74, 146-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.05.003

McCarthy, J. (2017). Enhancing feedback in higher education: Students’ attitudes towards online and in-class formative assessment feedback models. Active Learning in Higher Education, 18, 127-141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787417707615

Park, S., & Yun, H. (2017). Relationships between motivational strategies and cognitive learning in distance education courses. Distance Education, 38, 302-320. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2017.1369007

Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (4th ed.). Sage.

Ravitch, S. M., & Carl, N. M. (2016). Qualitative research: Bridging the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological. Sage.

Rhodes, R. (2017). A validity study of the culturally responsive teaching survey. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 45-53. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2017.050106

Ringler, I., Schubert, C., Deem, J., Flores, J., Friestad-Tate, J., & Lockwood, R. (2015). Improving the asynchronous online learning environment using discussion boards. i-manager’s Journal of Educational Technology, 12(1), 15-27.

Smith, N. V., Erlam, C., Quirke, N., & Sylvester, G. (2014). Establishing a sense of connectedness amongst theology students in distance education. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 18(2), 11-28.

Thomas, C. A., & Berry, R. Q. III. (2019). A qualitative metasynthesis of culturally relevant pedagogyand culturally responsive teaching: Unpacking mathematics teaching practices. Journal of Mathematics Education at Teachers College, 10(1), 21-30.

Tirado, R., Hernando, A., & Aguaded, J. I. (2015). The effect of centralization and cohesion on the social construction of knowledge in discussion forums. Interactive Learning Environments, 23, 293-316. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2012.745437

Trad, L., Katt, J., & Miller, A. N. (2014). The effect of face threat mitigation on instructor credibility and student motivation in the absence of instructor nonverbal immediacy. Communication Education, 63, 136-148. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634523.2014.889319

Vayre, E., & Vonthron, A-M. (2017). Psychological engagement of students in distance and online learning: Effects of self-efficacy and psychosocial processes. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55, 197-218. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633116656849

Webb, A., & Moallem, M. (2016). Feedback and feed-forward for promoting problem-based learning in online learning environments. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 13(2), 1-41.

Xu, J., Du, J., & Fan, X. (2015). Students’ groupwork management in online collaborative learning environments. Educational Technology & Society, 18, 195-205.

Yilmaz, R., & Keser, H. (2017). The impact of interactive environment and metacognitive support on academic achievement and transactional distance in online learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(1), 95-122. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633116656453

Zimbardi, K., Colthorpe, K., Dekker, A., Engstrom, C., Bugarcic, A., Worthy, P., Victor, R., Chunduri, P., Lluka, L., & Long, P. (2017). Are they using my feedback? The extent of students’ feedback use has a large impact on subsequent academic performance. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 42, 625-644. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2016.1174187




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24059/olj.v26i3.2805



Copyright (c) 2022 Alison Lockman, Barbara Schirmer

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/