Two Stories to Tell: Different Student Outcome Measures Correlate with Different Instructor Adaptations to COVID-19


  • Quentin Charles Sedlacek Southern Methodist University
  • Lily Amador California State University Monterey Bay
  • Emily Beasley California State University Monterey Bay
  • Krysta Malech California State University Monterey Bay
  • Viviana Vigil California State University Monterey Bay
  • Heather Haeger University of Arizona
  • Corin V Gray California State University Monterey Bay
  • Corin D Slown California State University Monterey Bay



COVID-19, online learning, emergency remote teaching, equity


The coronavirus pandemic severely disrupted college students’ learning experiences. A growing body of research is attempting to examine the impact of faculty efforts to support students during this difficult time. However, different outcomes measures might lead to varying inferences about the impact of instructors’ adaptations to their pedagogy. We explore this potential for varying inferences through a mixed-methods study of 11 courses taught at a Hispanic-Serving Institution in the United States in Spring 2020. First, using qualitative analytical methods, we identify five types of instructional adaptations made by faculty. Second, we use quantitative methods to uncover associations between these instructional adaptations and a variety of course outcome measures. While all of these instructional adaptations were perceived as beneficial by students, only one--ensuring access to instructor time--was significantly correlated with students’ reported motivational and personal gains from their coursework. However, only a different adaptation—ensuring access to class resources—was significantly correlated with reduced equity gaps measured through course grades. We discuss the implications of these findings for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers.

Author Biographies

Quentin Charles Sedlacek, Southern Methodist University

Assistant Professor of STEM Education

Department of Teaching & Learning

Lily Amador, California State University Monterey Bay

Research Assistant

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center

Emily Beasley, California State University Monterey Bay

Research Assistant

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center

Krysta Malech, California State University Monterey Bay

Research Assistant

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center

Viviana Vigil, California State University Monterey Bay

Research Assistant

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center

Heather Haeger, University of Arizona

Assistant Faculty in the Education Policy Studies and Practice

College of Education

Corin V Gray, California State University Monterey Bay

Curriculum Research Associate

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center

Corin D Slown, California State University Monterey Bay

Associate Professor

Department of Biology and Chemistry


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