Faculty Transition Strategies from In Person to Online Teaching: Qualitative Investigation for Active Learning
Keywords:Transfer practices, core space, shared space, augmented space, active learning, faculty development, active learning classrooms, online learning, design.
In this qualitative case study, we investigated how active learning strategies discussed and practiced in the face-to-face classroom context were transferred to an online modality by four faculty fellows of Indiana University’s Mosaic Faculty Fellows Program. This program is intended to support faculty members’ perception of how classroom space influences approaches to active learning. In 2020, all faculty members had to transition their courses online, and the semi-structured interview findings of this study showed that faculty members used three online space types to support the continued use of active learning approaches when transitioning to online: (1) core space to replicate existing practices (e.g., video conference and text), (2) shared space to supplement existing practices, and (3) augmented space to transform existing practices (e.g., activities that merge the physical world and online space). We concluded that preparing faculty members to effectively use active learning approaches in in-person classrooms can also guide active learning approaches in online teaching environments. The study also discussed the need for professional development programs that address support for active learning in different modalities by considering augmented space and its impact on student engagement.
Adams, B., & Wilson, N. S. (2020). Building community in asynchronous online higher education courses through collaborative annotation. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(2), 250-261. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239520946422
Asiyai, R. (2014). Students’ perception of the condition of their classroom physical learning environment and its impact on their learning and motivation. College Student Journal, 48(4), 714-723.
Baldwin, S. J. (2019). Assimilation in online course design. American Journal of Distance Education, 33(3), 195-211. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2019.1610304
Baldwin, S., Ching, YH. & Hsu, YC. (2018) Online course design in higher education: A review of national and statewide evaluation instruments. TechTrends 62, 46–57.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-017-0215-z
Barrett, P., Zhang, Y., Moffat, J., & Kobbacy, K. (2013). A holistic, multi-level analysis identifying the impact of classroom design on pupils’ learning. Building and Environment, 59, 678-689. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.09.016
Baum, E. J. (2018). Learning space design and classroom behavior. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 17(9), 34-54. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.17.9.3
Bohn-Gettler, C. M., & Rapp, D. N. (2011). Depending on my mood: Mood-driven influences on text comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 562-577. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023458
Bozkurt, A., & Sharma, R. C. (2020). Education in normal, new normal, and next normal: Observations from the past, insights from the present and projections for the future. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(2), i-x. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4362664
Cho, H. J., Zhao, K., Lee, C. R., Runshe, D., & Krousgrill, C. (2021). Active learning through flipped classroom in mechanical engineering: improving students’ perception of learning and performance. International Journal of STEM Education, 8(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-021-00302-2
Conceição, S. C. O., & Howles, L. (2021). Designing the online learning experience : Evidence-based principles and strategies. Stylus Publishing.
Cornelius, L. L., & Herrenkohl, L. R. (2004). Power in the classroom: How the classroom environment shapes students' relationships with each other and with concepts. Cognition and Instruction, 22(4), 467-498. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532690Xci2204_4
Cortese, J., and Seo, M. (2012). The role of social presence in opinion expression during FtF and CMC discussions. Communication. Research. Reports. 29, 44–53. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2011.639913
Craig, K., Humburg, M., Danish, J. A., Szostalo, M., Hmelo-Silver, C. E., & McCranie, A. (2020). Increasing students’ social engagement during COVID-19 with Net Create: Collaborative social network analysis to map historical pandemics during a pandemic. Information and Learning Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1108/ILS-04-2020-0105
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Gronseth, S. L., & Bauder, D. K. (2022). A synergistic framework for curricular flexibility in online collaborative learning. Distance Education, 1-18.
Ha, Y., & Im, H. (2020). The role of an interactive visual learning tool and its personalizability in online learning: Flow experience. Online Learning, 24(1), 205-226. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v24i1.1620
Hendarwati, E., Nurlaela, L., Bachri, B., & Sa'ida, N. (2021). Collaborative problem-based learning integrated with online learning. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 16(13), 29-39.
Hertzberger, H. (2008). Space and learning: Lessons in architecture. 3 (Vol. 3). 010 Publishers.
Johnson, A. E. (2008). A nursing faculty's transition to teaching online. Nursing Education
Perspectives, 29(1), 17-22.
Johnson, C. (2017). Teaching music online: Changing pedagogical approach when moving to the online environment. London Review of Education.
Koohang, A., Paliszkiewicz, J., Gołuchowski, J., & Nord, J. H. (2016). Active learning for knowledge construction in e-learning: A replication study. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 56(3), 238-243. https://doi.org/10.1080/08874417.2016.1153914
Kumar, S., Martin, F., Budhrani, K., & Ritzhaupt, A. (2019). Award-winning faculty online teaching practices: Elements of award-winning courses. Online Learning, 23(4), 160-180. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v23i4.2077
Lapidot-Lefler, N., & Barak, A. (2012). Effects of anonymity, invisibility, and lack of eye-contact on toxic online disinhibition. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2), 434-443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.10.014
Lawson, B. (2006). How designers think. Routledge.
Leary, H., Dopp, C., Turley, C., Cheney, M., Simmons, Z., Graham, C. R., & Hatch, R. (2020). Professional development for online teaching: A literature review. Online Learning, 24(4), 254-275. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v24i4.2198
Manovich, L. (2006). The poetics of augmented space. Visual Communication, 5(2), 219-240. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470357206065527
Martin, F., Bolliger, D. U., & Flowers, C. (2021). Design matters: Development and validation of the Online Course Design Elements (OCDE) instrument. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 22(2), 46-71.
Meepung, T., Pratsri, S., & Nilsook, P. (2021). Interactive tool in digital learning ecosystem for adaptive online learning performance. Higher Education Studies, 11(3), 70-77.
Montelongo, R. (2019). Less than/more than: Issues associated with high-impact online teaching and learning. Administrative Issues Journal: Connecting Education, Practice, and Research, 9(1), 68-79.
Overstreet, M. (2020). Strategies for building community among learners in online courses. College Teaching, 68(1), 45-48. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.2019.1707756
Piaget, J. (1954). The construction of reality in the child. New York, NY: Basic Books. doi:10.1037/ 11168-000
Poll, K., Widen, J., & Weller, S. (2014). Six instructional best practices for online engagement and retention. Journal of Online Doctoral Education, 1(1).
Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(3), 223–231. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2004.tb00809.x
Sadeghi, H., & Kardan, A. A. (2015). A novel justice-based linear model for optimal learner group formation in computer-supported collaborative learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 436-447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.01.020
Samuel, A. (2022). “I’m not trying to recreate the classroom”: A qualitative study to help faculty make sense of online interactions. American Journal of Distance Education, 1-14.
Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. Basic Books.
Shreaves, D. L., Ching, Y. H., Uribe-Florez, L., & Trespalacios, J. (2020). Faculty perceptions of online teaching at a midsized liberal arts university. Online Learning, 24(3), 106-127.
Stefaniak, J. E., & Hwang, H. (2021). A systematic review of how expertise is cultivated in instructional design coursework. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(6), 3331-3366.
Stepich, D. A., & Ertmer, P. A. (2003). Building community as a critical element of online course design. Educational Technology, 33-43.
Thai, N. T. T., De Wever, B., & Valcke, M. (2017). The impact of a flipped classroom design on learning performance in higher education: Looking for the best “blend” of lectures and guiding questions with feedback. Computers & Education, 107, 113-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.01.003
Tsoukala, K., & Terzoglou, N. I. (2017). Fluid space and transformational learning. Routledge.
Vesely, P., Bloom, L., & Sherlock, J. (2007). Key elements of building online community: Comparing faculty and student perceptions. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 3(3), 234-246.
Vuopala, E., Hyvönen, P., & Järvelä, S. (2016). Interaction forms in successful collaborative learning in virtual learning environments. Active Learning in Higher Education, 17, 25–38. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787415616730
Yoon, M., Lee, J., & Jo, I. H. (2021). Video learning analytics: Investigating behavioral patterns and learner clusters in video-based online learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 50, 100806.
As a condition of publication, the author agrees to apply the Creative Commons – Attribution International 4.0 (CC-BY) License to OLJ articles. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
This licence allows anyone to reproduce OLJ articles at no cost and without further permission as long as they attribute the author and the journal. This permission includes printing, sharing and other forms of distribution.
Author(s) hold copyright in their work, and retain publishing rights without restrictions