Systematic Reviews of Research on Online Learning: An Introductory Look and Review
In this introduction to the special issue on systematic reviews of research on online learning, we introduce the need for systematic reviews on online learning. Utilizing a three-tier lens focusing on systems, pedagogical, and people levels, we have selected nine articles for this issue. At the systems level, there are two articles that focus on research trends during COVID-19, and features of high-quality online learning. At the pedagogical level, five articles were included that address online learner collaboration, help-seeking strategies, intersubjectivity, invisible participation, and online assessment. Finally, at the people level, there are two articles. The first focuses on online learning for minoritized and first-generation students. The second examines moderators in asynchronous online discussions. This introductory article provides a short summary of the nine articles and concludes with implications for practitioners and researchers on using and conducting systematic reviews on various topics in online learning.
Ahlf, M., & McNeil, S. (2023). A systematic review of research on moderators in asynchronous online discussions. Online Learning, 27(1).
Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2017). Digital compass learning: Distance education enrollment Report 2017. Babson Survey Research Group. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ed580868
Beatty, B. J. (2019). Hybrid-flexible course design (1st ed.). EdTech Books. https://edtechbooks.org/hyflex
Berge, Z. L., & Collins, M. P. (2000). Perceptions of e‐moderators about their roles and functions in moderating electronic mailing lists. Distance Education, 21(1), 81-100. https://doi.org/10.1080/0158791000210106
Bonk, C. J. (2002, January). Executive Summary of “Online teaching in an online world.” United States Distance Learning Association (USDLA). 16(1). http://220.127.116.11/~usdla/usdla.org/public_html/cms/html/journal/JAN02_Issue/article02.html
Bonk, C. J. (2009). The world is open: How web technology is revolutionizing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Wiley.
Bonk, C. J. (2016). What is the state of e-learning? Reflections on 30 ways learning is changing. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 20(2), 6-20. http://jofdl.nz/index.php/JOFDL/article/viewFile/300/205
Bonk, C. J., & Graham, C. R. (Eds.) (2006). Handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs. Pfeiffer Publishing.
Bonk, C. J., Kim, M., & Xu, S. (2016). Do you have a SOLE?: Research on informal and self-directed online learning environments. In J. M. Spector, B. B. Lockee, & M. D. Childress (Eds.), Learning, design, and technology: An international compendium of theory, research, practice, and policy. Section: Informal resources and tools for self-directed online learning environments (35-1, pp. 1-32). Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-17727-4_35-1.
Bonk, C. J., Kirkley, J. R., Hara, N., & Dennen, V. P. (2001). Finding the instructor in post-secondary online learning: Pedagogical, social, managerial, and technological locations. In J. Stephenson (Ed.), Teaching and learning online: Pedagogies for new technologies (pp. 76-97). Kogan Page.
Bonk, C. J., Medury, P. V., & Reynolds, T. H. (1994). Cooperative hypermedia: The marriage of collaborative writing and mediated environments. Computers in the Schools, 10(1/2), 79-124. https://doi.org/10.1300/J025v10n01_08
Bonk, C. J., & Wiley, D. (2020). Preface: Reflections on the waves of emerging learning technology. Educational Technology Research and Development (ETR&D), 68(4), 1595-1612. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09809-x. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11423-020-09809-x.pdf
Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33(8), 3-15. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X033008003
Borup, J., Graham, C. R., West, R. E., Archambault, L., & Spring, K. J. (2020). Academic communities of engagement: An expansive lens for examining support structures in blended and online learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(2), 807-832. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09744-x
Choi, H., Arslan, Ö., Adolfson, D., & Screws, B. (2021). The international other in online learning: Four stories from a graduate program. In P. Nixon, V. P. Dennen, & R. Rawal (Eds.), Reshaping international teaching and learning in higher education (pp. 162-174). Routledge.
Choi, H., & Hur, J. (2023). Passive participation in collaborative online learning activities: A scoping review of research in formal school learning settings. Online Learning, 27(1).
Dennen, V. P. (2008). Looking for evidence of learning: Assessment and analysis methods for online discourse. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(2), 205-219. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2007.01.010
Dennen, V. P. (2021). Mediated identities, context collapse, and cultural elements of networked learning. In P. Nixon, V. P. Dennen, & R. Rawal (Eds.), Reshaping international teaching and learning: Universities in the information age (pp. 69-79). Routledge.
Dennen, V. P. (2022). Introduction to learners, teachers, media, and technology in ODDE: A people-first approach. In O. Zawacki-Richter & I. Jung (Eds.), Handbook of open, distance and digital education. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-0351-9_88-1
Dennen, V. P., & Burner, K. J. (2017). Identity, context collapse, and Facebook use in higher education: Putting presence and privacy at odds. Distance Education, 38(2), 173-192. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2017.1322453
Dennen, V. P., Hall, B. M., & Hedquist, A. (2023). A systematic review of research on intersubjectivity in online learning: Illuminating opportunities for cohesion and mutual understanding in the research conversation. Online Learning, 27(1).
Dennen, V. P., & Jones, M. K. (2022). The role of the online instructor: A nexus of skills, activities, and values that support learning. In O. Zawacki-Richter & I. Jung (Eds.), Handbook of open, distance and digital education. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-0351-9_62-1
Doo, M. Y., Zhu, M., & Bonk, C. J. (2023). A systematic review of the research trends in online learning during COVID-19: Documenting the sudden shift. Online Learning, 27(1).
Gardner, K., & Leary, H. (2023). Online learning for first-generation and underrepresented minoritized students: A literature review using a model of student engagement. Online Learning.
Gikandi, J. W., Morrow, D., & Davis, N. E. (2011). Online formative assessment in higher education: A review of the literature. Computers & Education, 57(4), 2333–2351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.06.004
Harasim, L. M. (1990). Online education: An environment for collaboration and intellectual amplification. In L. M. Harasim (Ed.), Online education: Perspectives on a new environment (pp. 39-66). Praeger Publishers.
Harasim, L. M. (2017). Learning theory and online technologies (2nd Ed). NY: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315716831
Heil, J., & Ifenthaler, D. (2023). Online assessment for supporting learning and teaching in higher education: A systematic review. Online Learning, 27(1).
Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020, March 27). The differences between emergency remote teaching and online learning. EDUCAUSE Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teachingand-online-learning
Martin, F., & Borup, J. (2022). Online learner engagement: Conceptual definitions, research themes, and supportive practices. Educational Psychologist, 57(3), 162-177.
Martin, F., Dennen, V. P., & Bonk, C. J. (2020). A synthesis of systematic review research on emerging learning environments and technologies. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(4), 1613-1633.
Martin, F., Sun, T., & Westine, C. D. (2020). A systematic review of research on online teaching and learning from 2009 to 2018. Computers & Education, 159, 104009
Oyarzun, B., & Martin, F. (2023). A systematic review of research on online learner collaboration from 2012 - 2021. Online Learning, 27(1).
Wei, X., Saab, N., & Admiraal, W. (2021). Assessment of cognitive, behavioral, and affective learning outcomes in massive open online courses: A systematic literature review. Computers & Education, 163, 104097.
Wright, A. C, Carley, T. C, Jivani, R, & Nizamuddin, S. (2023). Features of high-quality online courses in higher education: A scoping review. Online Learning, 27(1).
Yalçın, Y. (2022). Learner characteristics and competencies. In O. Zawacki-Richter & I. Jung (Eds.), Handbook of Open, Distance and Digital Education (pp. 1-21). Springer Nature https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-0351-9_51-1
Yang, F., & Steffaniak., J. (2023). A systematic review of studies exploring help-seeking strategies in online learning environments. Online Learning, 27(1).
Zawacki-Richter, O., Bäcker, E. M., & Vogt, S. (2009). Review of distance education research (2000 to 2008): Analysis of research areas, methods, and authorship patterns. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 10(6), 21-50. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v10i6.741
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