Emotional Presence in a Relationship of Inquiry: The Case of One-to-One Online Math Coaching


  • Stefan Stenbom KTH Royal Institute of Technology
  • Martha Cleveland-Innes KTH Royal Institute of Technology Athabasca University
  • Stefan Hrastinski KTH Royal Institute of Technology




Online coaching, Relationship of Inquiry, Community of Inquiry, Emotion, Emotional presence


Emotions have been confirmed to be a critical component of the process of learning. In the online Community of Inquiry theoretical framework, and the recently suggested online Relationship of Inquiry framework, emotions are considered a subsection of social presence. In this study, the concept of emotional presence is examined. This examination occurs within the Relationship of Inquiry framework, developed to analyze one-to-one online coaching. A survey of online coaches and a transcript coding procedure from the online coaching service Math Coach provide the data for the study. The results indicate that a Relationship of Inquiry framework consisting of cognitive, social, teaching, and emotional presence enhances the exploration of one-to-one online coaching settings. The interpretation of these results identifies emotional presence as an essential and distinct part of one-to-one online math coaching.

Author Biography

Stefan Stenbom, KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Department of Learning, ECE KTH Royal Institute of Technology






Empirical Studies